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Dutch Painting

Landscape with Ruins

Jacob van Ruisdael
Oil on canvas, 53 x 66 cm.
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
View of Haarlem with Bleaching Grounds, Jacob van Ruisdael

Jacob Isaackszon van RUISDAEL
Haarlem 1628–Amsterdam 1682

Van Ruisdael is often considered the greatest Dutch landscape painter. He was probably the pupil of his father, the frame maker and artist Isaak de Goyer, who later called himself Ruisdael. None of Isaak's paintings have been identified with certainty, and it is impossible to determine the nature and extent of his influence on Ruisdael. Jacob was the nephew of the noted painter Salomon van Ruisdael (this distinction in spelling occurs consistently in their own signatures).

The influence of Cornelis Vroom, another Haarlem landscapist, is often noticeable in his early works of the 1640s. The earliest dated pictures are of 1646. Two years later Ruisdael became a member of the Guild of St Luke in Haarlem. From 1650 to 1653 he traveled extensively in the Netherlands and the neighboring parts of western Germany. In about 1655 he settled in Amsterdam, of which he became a free citizen in 1659. Meindert Hobbema was his most famous pupil and follower.

Ruisdael's early work, such as the Landscape with a House in the Grove (c. 1646; The Hermitage, St. Petersburg), reflects his obsession with trees. Earlier Dutch artists use trees merely as decorative compositional devices, but Ruisdael makes them the subject of his paintings and imbues them with forceful personalities. His draftsmanship is meticulously precise and is enriched by thick impasto, which adds depth and character to the foliage and trunks of his trees. After 1650 the monumentality of his landscapes increases. In his view of Bentheim Castle (1653; National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin), the forms become more massive, the colours more vibrant, and the composition more concentrated. The latter quality is even more evident in his famous Jewish Cemetery (1655–1660; Gemäldegalerie, Dresden), which is one of his most masterly compositions. All motifs of secondary importance serve as accessories to the main motif, three ruined tombs. The painting symbolizes the transience of temporal things.

After 1656 Ruisdael's compositions became more spacious and his palette became brighter. His paintings of waterfalls and his Marsh in the Woods (c. 1665; Hermitage, St. Petersburg), recall his earlier interest in forest scenes. But more often his late works, such as the Windmill at Wijk bij Duurstede (c. 1665; Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam), Wheatfields (c. 1670; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York), and his numerous views of Haarlem display panoramas of the flat Dutch countryside. The horizon is invariably low and distant and dominated by a vast, clouded sky. Sometimes the small figures in his pictures were added by other artists, such as Adriaen van de Velde, Johannes Lingelbach, Philips Wouwerman, and Claes Berchem. He also produced several delicately finished etchings, one of the most famous of which is The Cornfield (Petit-Palais, Paris).

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