Woman with a Pearl Necklace

(Vrouw met parelsnoer)
c. 1662–1665
Oil on canvas
55 x 45 cm. (21 5/8 x 17 3/4 in.)
Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin
inv. 912B
there are 11 hotspots in the image below
Woman with a Pearl Necklace, Johannes Vermeer

Out of the iconography of Vanity Vermeer has fashioned an image of great purity and innocence, and he tenderly cherishes it as such. The moment of happiness of the painting is characterized by an almost complete absence of ego. The woman appears not so much to be admiring the pearls in the mirror as selflessly, even reverently, offering them up to the light: it is as if we were present at a marriage.

Edward A. Snow, A Study of Vermeer, 1979

Facsimile signature of Johannes Vermeer's Woman with a pearl necklace
inscribed on tabletop: (IVM in ligature)

Albert Blankert, Vermeer: 1632–1675, 1975

c. 1664–1665
Arthur K. Wheelock Jr., Vermeer: The Complete Works, New York, 1997

c. 1663–1664
Walter Liedtke, Vermeer: The Complete Paintings, New York, 2008

c. 1662–1665
Wayne Franits, Vermeer, 2015

The support is a fine, plain-weave, linen with a thread count of 21.6 x 15 per cm² The original tacking edges are still present. The top tacking edge is wider than the others and appears to have been folded double. Marks from the original strainer bars are evident along the top and right edges. The support has been lined and placed on a stretcher larger than the original strainer.

Over an off-white ground, black underpainting indicates the shadows of the woman's back. An ocher layer on top of the ground may cover the entire painting. It is not covered by any other paint layers in parts of the figure and in the stained glass window The woman's yellow jacket is underpainted with white, followed by lead-tin yellow in the light parts and two layers of a black and yellow ocher mixture in the shadows. In the flesh colors are various mixtures of white, ocher, and black, well blended into one another. The pearl necklace was painted wet-in-wet white over a gray/ocher layer.

* Johannes Vermeer(exh. cat., National Gallery of Art and Royal Cabinet of Paintings Mauritshuis - Washington and The Hague, 1995, edited by Arthur K. Wheelock Jr.)


Johannes Vermeer's WOman with a Pearl Necklace with frame

  • (?) Pieter Claesz. van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674);
  • (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681);
  • (?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695);
  • Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May, 1696, no. 36;
  • Johannes Caudri, Amsterdam (before 1809);
  • Caudri sale, Amsterdam, 6 September, 1809, no. 42, (to Ths. Spaan);
  • D. Teengs sale, Amsterdam, 24 April, 1811, no. 73 (to Gruyter);
  • Sale, Amsterdam, 26 March, 1856, no. 93 (to Philip);
  • Henry Grevedon, Paris (before 1860);
  • Thoré-Bürger (Etienne Joseph Théophile Thoré), Paris (c. 1860–1868);
  • Thoré-Bürger et al. sale, Brussels, 22 April, 1868, no. 49 (to Sedelmeyer for Suermondt);
  • Barthold Suermondt, Aachen (1868–1874);
  • acquired in 1874 as part of the Suermondt collection by the Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (inv. 912B).
  • Paris 1866
    Exposition rétrospective tableaux anciens empruntés aux galeries particulières
    Palais des Champs-Elysées
    not in cat.
  • Paris 1914
    Hundred Masterpieces: A Selection from the Pictures by Old Masters
    Sedelmeyer Gallery
    52, no. 24 and ill.
  • New York May 17–June 13, 1948
    Paintings from the Berlin Museums Exhibited in Co-operation with The Department of The Army
    Metropolitan Museum of Art
    14, no. 138 and ill., as "Young Woman with a Pearl Necklace"
  • Philadelphia June 19–July 7, 1948
    Paintings from the Berlin Museums Exhibited in Co-operation with The Department of The Army
    Philadelphia Museum of Art
    14, no. 138 and ill., as "Young Woman with a Pearl Necklace"
  • Chicago July 15–August 4, 1948
    Masterpieces of painting saved from the German Salt Mines: Property of the Berlin Museums
    The Art Institute of Chicago.
    14, no. 138 and ill., as "Young Woman with a Pearl Necklace"
  • Boston August 14–Augus 31t, 1948
    Paintings from the Berlin Museums Exhibited in Co-operation with The Department of The Army
    Boston Museum of Fine Arts
    14, no. 138 and ill., as "Young Woman with a Pearl Necklace"
  • Detroit September 10–September 26, 1948
    Paintings from the Berlin Museums Exhibited in Co-operation with The Department of The Army
    Museum of Fine Arts
    14, no. 138 and ill., as "Young Woman with a Pearl Necklace"
  • Cleveland October 6–Octoberv22, 1948
    Paintings from the Berlin Museums Exhibited in Co-operation with The Department of The Army
    Cleveland Museum of Art
    14, no. 138 and ill., as "Young Woman with a Pearl Necklace"
  • Minneapolis (MS) November 2–November 17, 1948
    Paintings from the Berlin Museums Exhibited in Co-operation with The Department of The Army
    Minneapolis Institute of Arts.
    14, no. 138 and ill., as "Young Woman with a Pearl Necklace"
  • San Francisco December 11–December 29, 1948
    Paintings from the Berlin Museums Exhibited in Co-operation with The Department of The Army
    M.H. de Young Memorial Museum
    14, no. 138 and ill., as "Young Woman with a Pearl Necklace"
  • Los Angeles Janunary 4–January 22, 1949
    Paintings from the Berlin Museums Exhibited in Co-operation with The Department of The Army
    County Museum of Art
    14, no. 138 and ill., as "Young Woman with a Pearl Necklace"
  • St Louis Jan uary 31–February 17, 1949
    Paintings from the Berlin Museums Exhibited in Co-operation with The Department of The Army
    Saint Louis City Art Museum
    14, no. 138 and ill., as "Young Woman with a Pearl Necklace"
  • Philadelphia February 27–March 14, 1949
    Paintings from the Berlin Museums Exhibited in Co-operation with The Department of The Army
    Carnegie Institute
    14, no. 138 and ill., as "Young Woman with a Pearl Necklace"
  • Toledo March 22–March 31, 1949
    Paintings from the Berlin Museums Exhibited in Co-operation with The Department of The Army
    Toledo Museum of Art.
    14, no. 138 and ill., as "Young Woman with a Pearl Necklace"
  • Amsterdam June 17–September 17, 1950
    120 Beroemde schilderrijen uit het Kaiser-Friederich-Museum te Berlijn
    56, no. 112 and ill. 107
  • Washington D.C November 12, 1995–February 11, 1996
    Johannes Vermeer
    National Gallery of Art
    152–155, no. 12 and ill.
  • The Hague March 1–June 2, 1996
    Johannes Vermeer
    152–155, no. 12 and ill.
  • Madrid February 19–May 18, 2003
    Vermeer y el interior holandés. Museo Nacional del Prado
    174–175, no. 36 and ill.
  • Rome November 11, 2008–February 15, 2009
    Da Rembrandt a Vermeer: Valori civili nella pittura fiamminga e olandese del '600 Fondazione Roma
    Museo del Corso
    104–105, no. 33 and ill.
  • Tokyo June 13–September 17, 2012
    From Renaissance to Rococo: Four Centuries of European Drawing, Painting and Sculpture
    National Museum of Western Art
  • Paris February 20–May 22, 2017
    Vermeer and the Masters of Genre Painting: Inspiration and Rivalry
    Musée du Louvre
  • Dublin June 17–September 17, 2017
    Vermeer and the Masters of Genre Painting: Inspiration and Rivalry
    National Gallery of Ireland
  • Washington D.C. October 22, 2017–January 21, 2018
    Vermeer and the Masters of Genre Painting: Inspiration and Rivalry
    National Gallery of Art
Johannes Vermeer's Woman with a Pearl Necklace in scael
vermeer's life

In a death inventory of the English sculptor Jean Larson, who lived in the Hague, is listed "a head by Vermeer." Some critics believe it may have bee the Girl with a Pearl Earring.

In the early to mid-1660s Vermeer refined all the qualities of his mature style. In his orderly designs, Vermeer gave new life to familiar patterns of contemporary genre painting by closely studying the subtleties of appearance.

dutch painting

Pieter de Hooch paints Young Woman Weighing Gold

Jan Steen: paints The Christening Feast.

Frans Hals, one of the most fashionable portraitists of his time and now in his late sixties, paints two of his most significant group portraits, the Regents and Regentesses of the Old Men's Alshouse at Haarlem. Owing to his dire poverty he will be given a small allowance by the town of Haarlem.

european painting & architecture

Nicola Poussin paints Apollo and Daphne

John Vanbrugh, Eng. architect and dramatist, is born.

Christopher Wren: Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford.

Francisco de Zurbaran, Spanish painter, dies.


The French horn becomes an orchestral instrument.

Oratorio: Christmas Oratorio by Heinrich Schütz at Dresden.


William Shakespeare - the second impression of the Third Folio, which added seven plays to the thirty-six of the First Folio and the Second: Pericles, Prince of Tyre and six works from the Shakespeare Apocrypha.

Thomas Killigrew and the King's Company stage Killigrew's The Parson's Wedding with an all-female cast. Killigrew attempts a similar all-female production of his play Thomaso, though the project is never realized.

science & philosophy

Robert Hooke discovers the Great Red Spot (an extremely persistent storm) on Jupiter and uses it to determine the period of Jupiter's rotation, which is astonishingly less than ten hours despite Jupiter's great size.

Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, calculates the orbit of a comet and finds that it is a parabola (not a circle, ellipse, or line as expected in various earlier theories).

Descartes' Traité de l'homme et de la formation de foetus (treatise on man and the formation of the fetus), printed posthumously, describes animals as purely mechanical beings; that is, there is no "vital force" that makes animals different from other material objects.

Christiaan Huygens proposes that the length of a pendulum with a period of one second should be the standard unit for length.


Aug 29, Adriaen Pieck/Gerrit de Ferry patented a wooden firespout in Amsterdam.

New Amsterdam handed over by Peter Stuyvesant to the English, who renames the city New York

Amsterdam passes a regulation banning the sale of "rotten, spoiled, or defective spinach, cucumbers, and carrots, ears of corn, radishes, or other fruits [vegetables] because pride could not be taken in or from such things."

Slavery is introduced into the Caribbean island of Montserrat and will not be abolished until 1834.

The Black Death kills 24,000 in old Amsterdam while the English are taking Nieuw Amsterdam. The plague spreads to Brussels and throughout much of Flanders, and in December it kills two Frenchmen in London's Drury Lane. Men who put the dead into the deadcarts keep their pipes lit in the belief, now widespread, that tobacco smokers will somehow be spared.

Samuel Pepys buys forks for his household, but most Englishmen continue to eat with their fingers and will continue to do so until early in the next century lest they be considered effete or, in the opinion of some clergymen, even sacrilegious. A man going out to dinner has for centuries brought his own spoon and knife, the spoon being folded into the pocket and the knife carried in a scabbard attached to the belt; more men now carry folding forks as well.

The Kronenbourg Brewery founded in Alsace will continue into the 21st century to produce beer.

Although Vermeer could have chosen his themes independently, it is hardly out of question that he had a sort of loose collaboration with his patron Pieter van Ruijven, a rich Delft patrician. In fact, John Michael Montias believes that Van Ruijven and Vermeer had entertained far more than a simple painter/client relationship.

Van Ruijven, like Vermeer, was ambitious. In 1669, he had paid sixteen thousand guilders, an astronomical sum, to acquire land near Schiedam that brought with it the title of Lord of Spalant. His acquisition may be considered as a 17th-century case of "social rising." Van Ruijven may have enabled Vermeer's experimental working mode by keeping the painter on something of a retainer. There was a precedent for such arrangements in the competitive Dutch market. Van Ruijven almost certainly had direct knowledge of this arrangement from Pieter Spierincx, a distant cousin, who had sealed the right of first refusal the work's of Gerrit Dou, the most sought-after painter of the time.

Moreover, Van Ruijven's wife, Maria de Knuijt, had brought the far greater share of money to the marriage than he, and her taste must have been taken into account. Indeed, the domestic scenes of Vermeer's compositions may have been designed to appeal to a woman's gaze at least as much as to a man's. According to the art historian Lisa Vergara, as a "supporter of the Orthodox wing of the Reformed church, De Knuijt might have found particularly appealing the chaste dignity that informs Vermeer's interpretations of femininity."

With such a backdrop, Vermeer, Van Ruijven and his wife may have discussed art not only in general terms, but in relationship to Vermeer's compositions, many of which they would have acquired for their own home.

Young Woman Standing before a Mirror, Frans van Mieris

Young Woman Standing before a Mirror
Frans van Mieris
42.9 x 31.6 cm.
Alte Pinakothek, Munich

A woman at her toilette was a popular theme among Dutch genre painters in the 1650s and 1660s. A likely iconographic prototype for Vermeer's work is the Young Woman before a Mirror (c. 1662) by Frans van Mieris. However, Vermeer seems to have purged his composition of he explicit sensuality and extravagant color scheme present in Van Mieris' version.

Arthur K. Wheelock Jr. pointed out that in the present work the artist "minimized the apparent physical activity of the figure, portraying her at the moment she has the ribbons pulled taut. Her thoughts may be inward, but they are expressed through her gaze, which reaches across the white wall of the room to the mirror next to the window. The whole space between her and the side wall of the room thus becomes activated with her presence. It is a subtle yet daring composition, one that succeeds because of Vermeer's acute sensitivity to the placement of objects and to the importance of spaces between these objects."

Woman with a Pearl Necklace (radiographic image), Johannes Vermeer

The essential composition we now see was not Vermeer's original concept. Neutron autoradiography has revealed that the artist made critical changes in the composition. By extending the shape of the great folds of the slate-blue tablecloth of the still life he eliminated a number of black and white floor tiles and more of the table's complicated structure. As a result, the viewer's attention is now drawn to the upper part of the composition. Another important modification was the exclusion of a musical instrument, most likely a cittern, which lay propped up diagonally on the foreground chair.

However, the most startling alteration was the exclusion of a large wall map that surrounded the standing girl, which absorbed her presence and obfuscated the line of her gaze towards the mirror. The map was very likely the same which appears in The Art of Painting.

According to Arthur K. Wheelock Jr., the "map, representing the physical world, and the musical instrument, referring to sensual love, would have given a context for interpreting the mirror and the pearls negatively rather than positively. Indeed, the sensual, earthy connotations are similar to those associated with 'Vrouw Wereld.' The Vrouw Wereld (the Lady World) was a well-known allegorical figure dating back to medieval times who personifies worldly pleasures and transience." By removing the map and musical instrument, Wheelock proposes that Vermeer transformed the image into a poetic statement, evoking the ideals of purity and truth.

From technical evidence, Vermeer seems to have restretched the original canvas over a smaller frame reducing its dimensions to tighten the composition. Subsequent restorers, noting that the painted composition extended over the edges of the stretcher, enlarged the format to what they thought were its original dimensions.

A Young Woman at her Toilette, Gerrit ter Borch

A Young Woman at her Toilette
Gerrit ter Borch
c. 1650–1651
Oil on panel, 7.5 x 34.5 cm.
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Although Vermeer could have drawn on a number of Dutch paintings of women absorbed by their own beauty, none are so intimate as Gerrit ter Borch's A Young Woman at her Toilette (see left). In Vermeer's work, the young lady puts her last touches on her morning toilette fastening her pearl necklace while Ter Borch's figure ties her chemise. Both gaze into a mirror unaware of their surroundings making the spectator feel as if he were an intruder.

Previous to Ter Borch's work, the theme of women adorning themselves in front of mirrors had been conceived as warnings against vanity. Ter Borch, perhaps reflecting a positive shift in Dutch attitudes towards women and private life of individuals, transformed the subject by focusing on the simplicity and sincerity of female conduct. Ter Borch's half sister Gesina was the model for the central figure.

Ter Borch made an enormous contribution to the development of interior painting in the Netherlands and his work was avidly collected, and emulated by many artists. He is, perhaps, the only Dutch genre artist who was able to rival Vermeer in the depth and sympathetic treatment of ordinary women. Nonetheless, although Ter Borch may been more capable of registering nuances of female physiognomy than Vermeer, his scenes lacks the sense of design and, above all, the sense of three-dimensional space which in Vermeer's paintings extend the figure's interior life.

It is known that among the vast quantities of exotic Chinese imports, oriental drawings also found their way to Europe in the time of Vermeer, but they appear to have had negligible influence on Dutch painting. Imitations of the Chinese mannerisms seems to have been limited to Delft ceramic painters who copied and elaborated upon imported porcelain for local markets. Nonetheless, early Vermeer writers, who were closer to the 18th-century style known as chinoiserie, speculated that the ineffable atmosphere of Vermeer's paintings may have been influenced by oriental art.

In the À la recherche du temps perdu Marcel Proust evoked the Orient to describe the beauty of Vermeer painting in his famous passage about a tiny passage of Vermeer's View of Delft . He wrote about the last day in the life of a fictitious French writer and art lover, Bergotte: "The circumstances of his death were as follows. A fairly mild attack of uraemia had led to his being ordered to rest. But, an art critic having written somewhere that in Vermeer's View of Delft (lent by the Gallery at The Hague for an exhibition of Dutch painting), a picture which he adored and imagined that he knew by heart, a little patch of yellow wall (which he could not remember) was so well painted that it was, if one looked at it by itself, like some priceless specimen of Chinese art, of a beauty that was sufficient in itself."

A Girl with a Mirror, Paulus Moreelse

A Girl with a Mirror
Paulus Moreelse
Oil on canvas
The Fitzgerald Museum, Cambridge

Mirrors in art carry a broad variety of meanings and associations.

The oracle of Apollo at Delphi demanded of the ancient Greek "know thyself," and mirrors have often been used as symbols of wisdom and self-knowledge. But the mirror can just as easily imply vanity, an unhealthy amount of self-regard. The danger of over admiring one's mirror image is encapsulated in the ancient Greek myth of Narcissus, the beautiful boy who had fallen in love with his reflection in a pool.

In the ancient world, mirrors were made of highly polished metal, usually copper. The Romans are usually credited with developing glass mirrors, but these were not widely used until c. 1500 when convex mirrors were produced in Germany. Venetian glass makers developed the kind of flat, silvered mirrors we know today. In those times, no other civilization produced the glass mirror. Renaissance painters are known to have extensively utilized mirrors to examine reality more objectively.

In ancient art, the mirror is often associated with the world of women and does not necessarily carry any symbolic value, although it was an attribute of the Roman goddess Venus.

In Christian art, the mirror came to represent the eternal purity of the Virgin Mary. The mirror in art can have other positive meanings. The allegorical figures of Prudence and Truth were often imagined carrying mirrors.

From the Renaissance on, Vanity and Deception were the connotations the mirror carried most often rather than Truth and Prudence. A work by Vermeer's contemporary Paulus Moreelse (see left) typifies this distrust as an allegory of Lasciviousness or Vanity: just as the mirror is dishonest, a carrier of pure illusion, so this girl's beauty is an illusion, as transitory and shallow as her reflection in the glass.

Some painters artfully made use of the mirror to show us something that we would otherwise not be able to see; the reflection of an object or person outside the scope of the painting perhaps. Vermeer showed both the girl's hidden face as well as the artist's easel set at a distance from the scene which unfolds in The Music Lesson. In the Woman with a Pearl Necklace and the Woman Holding a Balance, the viewer can see nothing but a sliver of light, presumably reflected from the illuminated figure.

Mirrors have been potent props in allegories, and are often identified as attributes of various gods and saints, virtues, senses, and vices. When Vermeer used mirrors as props in his own work he was no doubt fully aware that one of the principal function of art as defined by contemporary art theorists was to faithfully mirror nature.

Mirrors have been potent props in allegories, and are often identified as attributes of various gods and saints, virtues, senses, and vices. When Vermeer used mirrors as props in his own work he was no doubt fully aware that one of the principal function of art as defined by contemporary art theorists was to faithfully mirror nature.

The Procuress (detail), Johannes Vermeer

No historical evidence has survived that directly concerns Vermeer's persona, or how he may have interacted with his clients or fellow artists. Certainly, the outward appearance of his painting would suppose a balanced and contemplative gentleman, even though there were many cases in which the world depicted by an artist had little or nothing to do with his known character or personal circumstances. Circumstantial evidence would seem to suggest that Vermeer's personality did not stray too far from what we might deduce from his art: he was even-tempered, confident, controlled and likely graced with above-average social skills. It is presumed that the only surviving effigy of Vermeer is the background figure in his early bordello scene, The Procuress (see image left).

Vermeer was repeatedly elected headsman of the Guild of St. Luke (the association which furthered the interests of Delft's artists and artisans). No doubt, this job demanded diplomatic qualities as well as the esteem and trust of the guild's heterogeneous members. Art historians have repeatedly underlined that Vermeer was able not only to live and prosper but to positively relate with his domineering Catholic mother-in-law during the years of his artistic activity. There is no evidence that suggests he ever fell out with her. Furthermore, the artist was able to secure and maintain a vital relationship with a rich Delft patron, Pieter van Ruijven, who had purchased more than half of his entire artistic output. Van Ruiven's wife granted Vermeer a copious sum of money in her last testament, an unusual, if not unique occurrence. In any case, it is doubtful that Vermeer filled the bill of the eccentric artist, then as now, in vogue among the public.

Painter Defacting on Palette and Brushes, Aert van Waes

Painter Defacting on Palette and Brushes
Aert van Waes
Etching, 16.2 x 21.4 cm.
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

Not all artists aspired to the same level of social acceptance as Vermeer. In fact, as the art historian Ingrid A. Cartwright informs us, the popular motif of Dutch "bohemian-type artists" toiling away in disheveled studios proves that many painters had dropped their noble robes of the pictor doctus and had embraced behaviors that art theorists and the culture at large disparaged. Writers from the second half of the 15th century onward made frequent mentions of artist's eccentricities, foibles and oddities which were equated with nonconformity, individuality and creative superiority. Biographers reported artists' personal oddities while humanizing their otherwise mystifying profession, allowing viewers to picture the personalities residing behind the brushstrokes.

More likely, Vermeer aspired to bequeath an image of himself as the supremely accomplished artist, a genius guided by divine grace, as conceived in the Italian Renaissance. The aspiration to guarantee himself a place in history nowhere better exemplified in visual terms than in his ambitions Art of Painting, a painted hymn to his profession and extraordinary talent.

Woman with a Pearl Necklace (detail), Johannes Vermeer

The problem of rendering the quality of edges is a crucial aspect of pictorial representation. As the American painter and author of the first Vermeer monograph published in America wrote, primitive painters almost universally made, as amateurs still make, their edges too sharp. As a consequence, whatever the merit of their work may be, they tend to appear hard and dry. Leonardo da Vinci was perhaps the first painter to study edges systematically and employ simultaneously hard and soft ones. Many of his followers, and still more the school of Correggio, tended to paint their edges almost uniformly soft.

The best 17th-century Dutch painters studied their edges attentively, and so one thinks less of the hardness or softness of their work than is the case viewing Great Masters of other nations. Their good paintings simply look right in this respect. Vermeer was notably successful in creating something so like the aspect of nature that the spectator takes the edges for granted. It is likely that Vermeer studied at close quarters the works of Gerrit ter Borch, who perhaps, more than any other painter in history, understood the necessity of varying contour to accurately evoke a natural sense of form, space and light in painting.

In the present work by Vermeer, there is a notable variety of contours. The back edge of the girl's yellow jacket is surprisingly blurred. The naked eye would not have seen it that way. But the painting conveys the idea of incomparable softness of the fabric and roundness of the form. Had Vermeer opted for a sharp contour, the figure of the girl would have appeared flattened and closer, almost attached, to the background wall.

The difficulty in understanding how to portray edges is caused by the fact that we do not normally see blurred edges in nature since our eyes are constantly focusing and refocusing in order to guarantee the sharpest and most comprehensible image possible. This is especially true with objects as close to the viewer as those in the paintings of Vermeer. The painter must subvert, as it were, what he normally sees in favor of what he knows will be more efficient in painting.

Interior with a Woman Combing a Little Girl's Hair, Jacobus Vrel

Interior with a Woman Combing a Little Girl's Hair
Jacobus Vrel
c. 1654/1662
Oil on oak, 55.9 x 40.6 cm.
Detroit Institue of Art, Detroit

Although Vermeer's plain white-washed walls are often taken for granted as chronicle, they constitute a tour de force of painting technique and are crucial in creating the atmosphere of his interiors. Generally, Vermeer's treatment of the white-washed-wall motif is linked to Carel Fabritius and, of course, Pieter de Hooch.

However, there exists another painter who delighted in painting simple walls: Jacobus Vrel, a charmingly idiosyncratic minor-master whose place in art history is slightly more than negligible. The works of Vrel have been traditionally been confused with those of Vermeer and De Hooch. Some of his canvases bear signatures that had been altered to read "Vermeer" or "De Hooch." Vrel's technique is unusual for the Dutch school in that he rejected finicky detail in favor of a broad depiction, remarkable for its controlled simplicity.

One might easily suppose that the provincial autodidacte Vrel must have taken the lead from Vermeer or De Hooch. However, his only dated painting, from 1654, suggests that rather than following, he anticipated the two Delft artists' interest in domestic themes and light effects. His Interior with a Woman at a Window, dated 1654, proves it was made four years before any known Delft-style interiors or courtyards by De Hooch. Art historians generally date Vermeer's first interiors from about 1657. Equally vexing is the fact that Vrel depcited a series of simple town views that cannot fail to suggest the unpretentiousness of Vermeer's Little Street.

Since we know nothing of Vrel's life, any contact or influence between the two is completely conjectural.

Young Woman at her Ttoilet. Caspar Netscher

Young Woman at her Ttoilet
Caspar Netscher
c. 1665
Oil on panel, 42.5 x 33 cm.
Private collection

The woman donning a pearl necklace in Vermeer's picture is presumably putting the final touches on her morning toilette. On the table lies a powder brush and a fine comb. An unidentifiable box behind these objects may be associated with her morning activity, perhaps, a container for her necklace or cosmetics.

In the 17th century, men and women cared about their appearance. In an age when men conceived that a woman's "first merit is that of beauty" (and many women no doubt thought the same) women of the upper classes took great care to present their body and face in the most attractive manner. The ideal woman should have a fair complexion, round or oval face with a well-proportioned nose. Large, moist dark eyes, a high forehead, and a small double chin were appreciated. The mouth should be small, but with full lips . Blond hair was also considered beautiful so some women dyed their hair.

To conform to the current ideal of beauty, which not every woman was blessed with, women utilized cosmetics and various practices that would be consider today repelling or even dangerous. Various books and pamplehts circulated with recipes and advice on how to improve one's appearance. On such book, already published in 1608, was entitled Delights for Ladies to Adorn Their Persons, Tables, Closets, and Distillatories: With Beauties, Banquets, Perfumes and Waters.

Face, Anonymous, after Abraham van Diepenbeeck

Anonymous, after Abraham van Diepenbeeck (1600–1676)
Engraving, 140 x 96 mm.
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

To redden lips and cheeks vermilion, an orange-red pigment derived from mercury found on the palette of many artists found, was employed, no doubt with unhealthy effects. Luckily, some women also harmless substances to color their cheeks, such as like red ocher or a tincture of boiled crabs. Facial hair was removed and sometimes eyebrows plucked. In later 16th century the white lead was revived as a way of attaining a pale complexion, which was a sign of well being and wealth (poor women had to work outdoors so they were suntanned). The dangers of lead carbonate were unknown, but instead was believed to "be effective in the treatment of certain skin pathologies, capable of eroding the growths and imperfections of the skin, removing stains, and polishing, cleaning, and bleaching the face." The use lead carbonate produced quite opposite effects, including hair loss, inflamed eyes, damaged teeth, and even blackened skin. Lead poisoning could also lead to death. It was also believed lighten skin could be gotten by bathing the skin in one's own urine. To soften skin a French chemist recommended women to wash "with rosewater mixed with wine, else make a decoction of the rinds of lemon."

Judging by the face of Vermeer's young lady, it would seem that she did use cosmetics, she used them with parsimony.