Study of a Young Woman

(Meisjeskopje)
c. 1665–1667
Oil on canvas
44.5 x 40 cm. (17 1/2 x 15 3/4 in.)
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
there are 11 hotspots in the image below
Study of a Young Woman, Johannes Vermeer

The Wrightsman (Study of a Young Woman) and the Mauritshuis (Girl with a Pearl Earring) paintings are almost identical in size and are close in composition: the figures are similarly posed against dark backgrounds, and each wears a pearl earring and an elegant scarf that falls behind her head. The models may or may have not been Vermeer's daughters, but neither picture was painted as a portrait. The paintings are studies of expression, physical types, and visual qualities such as behavior of light. Whether the two canvases were conceived as pendants, which would have been exceptional for tronies, is quite uncertain but cannot be dismissed out of hand.

Walter Liedtke, Vermeer and the School of Delft, 2001

Facsimile signature of Johannes Vermeer's Study of a Young Woman
signed upper left: IVMeer [IVM in monogram]

Study of a Young  Woman (detail of signature), Johannes Vermeer

c. 1667-1668
Arthur K. Wheelock Jr. Vermeer: The Complete Works, New York, 1997)

c. 1665-1667
Walter Liedtke Vermeer: The Complete Paintings, New York, 2008)

technicalimagegoeshere

literature

Johannes Vermeer's Study of a Young Woman with frame

  • (?) Pieter Claesz. van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674);
  • (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681);
  • (?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695);
  • Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 38, 39 or 40 [tronies];
  • Jan Luchtmans, Rotterdam (in 1816);
  • Luchtmans sale, Rotterdam, 20 April 1816, no. 92;
  • Auguste Marie Raymond, prince d'Arenberg, Brussels (by 1829-d.1833);
  • Arenberg family, Brussels and Schloss Meppen, Germany (1833-1945);
  • Engelbert-Marie, 9th duc d'Arenberg, Brussels, Schloss Meppen and Schloss Nordkirchen, Germany (1945-d.1949);
  • his son, Engelbert-Charles, 10th duc d'Arenberg (1949-55);
  • sold through Germain Seligman to Wrightsman);
  • Mr and Mrs Charles Wrightsman, New York (1955-79);
  • The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Gift of Mr and Mrs Charles Wrightsman, in memory of Theodore Rousseau Jr., 1979 (acc. no. 1979.396.1).
  • Düsseldorf August 1904
    Kunsthistorische Ausstellung. Location unknown.
    no. 398 (lent by Herzog von Arenberg, Brussels).
  • The Hague June 25–September 5, 1966
    In het licht van Vermeer. Mauritshuis.
    no. VI (lent by Mr. and Mrs. Charles B. Wrightsman, New York and Palm Beach).
  • Paris 1966 September 24–November 28, 1966
    Dans la lumière de Vermeer. Musée de l'Orangerie.
    no. VII (lent by Mr. and Mrs. Charles B. Wrightsman, New York and Palm Beach).
  • New York March 8–May 27, 2001
    Vermeer and the Delft School. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    no. 75.
  • Madrid February 19–May 18, 2003
    Vermeer y el interior holandés. Museo Nacional del Prado.
    178-181, no.38 and ill.
  • New York September 18, 2007–January 6, 2008
    The Age of Rembrandt: Dutch Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    no catalogue.
  • New York October 24, 2008–February 1, 2009
    The Philippe de Montebello Years: Curators Celebrate Three Decades of Acquisitions. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    online catalogue.
  • New York September 9–November 29, 2009
    Vermeer's Masterpiece 'The Milkmaid. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    no. 9.
Johannes Vermeer's Study of a Young Woman in scale
1665
vermeer's life Pieter van Ruijven and his wife Maria Knuijt leave 500 guilders to Vermeer in their last will and testament. This kind of a bequest is very unusual and testifies a close relationship between Vermeer and Van Ruijven that went beyond the usual patron/painter one. It would seem that in his life-time the rich Delft burger had bought a sizable share of Vermeer's artistic output.
dutch painting

Rembrandt paints The Jewish Bride.

Adriaen van Ostade paints The Physician in His Study.

c. 1665 Gerrit Dou painted Woman at the Clavichord and a Self-Portrait in which he resembled Rembrandt.

european painting & architecture

Bernini finishes high altar, Saint Peter's, Rome (begun 1656).

Murillo: Rest on the Flight into Egypt.

Nicolas Poussin, French painter, dies. Known as the founder of French Classicism, he spent most of his career in Rome which he reached at age 30 in 1624. His Greco-Romanism work includes The Death of Chione and The Abduction of the Sabine Women.

Compagnie Saint-Gobain is founded by royal decree to make mirrors for France's Louis XIV. It will become Europe's largest glass-maker.

Francesco Borromini completes Rome's Church of San Andrea delle Fratte.

music

Molière: Don Giovanni.

Sep 22, Moliere's L'amour Medecin, premiered in Paris.

literature

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society begins publication.

science & philosophy

Giovanni Cassini determines rotations of Jupiter, Mars, and Venus.

Peter Chamberlen, court physician to Charles 11, invents midwifery forceps

Pierre de Fermat, French mathematician, dies. His equation xn + yn = zn is called Fermat's Last Theorem and remained unproven for many years. The history of its resolution and final proof by Andrew Wiles is told by Amir D. Aczel in his 1996 book Fermat's Last Theorem. Fermat's Enigma: The Epic Quest to Solve the World's Greatest Mathematical Problem by Simon Singh was published in 1997. In 1905 Paul Wolfskehl, a German mathematician, bequeathed a reward of 100,000 marks to whoever could find a proof to Fermat's "last theorem." It stumped mathematicians until 1993, when Andrew John Wiles made a breakthrough.

Francis Grimaldi: Physicomathesis de lumine (posth.) explains diffraction of light.

Isaac Newton experiments on gravitation; invents differential calculus.

Robert Hooke's Micrographia, with illustrations of objects viewed through a microscope, is published. The book greatly influences both scientists and educated laypeople. In it, Hooke describes cells (viewed in sections of cork) for the first time. Fundamentally, it is the first book dealing with observations through a microscope, comparing light to waves in water.

Mathematician Pierre de Fermat dies at Castres January 12 at age 63, having (with the late Blaise Pascal) founded the probability theory. His remains will be reburied in the family vault at Toulouse.

history

English naval forces defeat a Dutch fleet off Lowestoft June 3 as a Second Anglo-Dutch war begins, 11 years after the end of the first such war. General George Monck, 1st duke of Albemarle, commands the English fleet, Charles II bestows a knighthood on Irish-born pirate Robert Holmes, 42, and promotes him to acting rear admiral, giving him command of the new third-rate battleship Defiance, but the Dutch block the entrance to the Thames in October

Feb 6, Anne Stuart, queen of England (1702-14), is born.

At least 68,000 Londoners died of the plague in this year.

University of Kiel is founded.

The second war between England and the United Provinces breaks out. It will last until 1667 and devastate the art market.

Mar 11, A new legal code was approved for the Dutch and English towns, guaranteeing religious observances unhindered.

Nov 7, The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, is first published.

Ceylon becomes important trade centre for the VOC

1666
vermeer's life

The Concert presents a very similar deep spatial recession similar to the earlier Music Lesson. Vermeer's interest in the accurate portrayal of three dimensional perspective to create such an effect was shared by other interior genre painters of the time, however, only Vermeer seems to have fully and consciously understood the expressive function of perspective. The two paintings' underlying theme of music between male and female company is also analogous although few critics believe they were conceived as a pendant.

In the paintings of the 1660s the painted surfaces are smoother and less tactile, the lighting schemes tend to be less bold. These pictures convey and impalpable air of reticence and introspection, unique among genre painters with the possible exception of Gerrit ter Borch.

dutch painting Frans Hals, eminent Dutch portrait painter, dies. It was formerly believed that he died in the Oudemannenhuis almshouse in Haarlem which was later became the Frans Halsmuseum.
european painting & architecture

François Mansart, French architect, dies.

Apr 9, 1st public art exhibition (Palais Royale, Paris).

music Dec 5, Francesco Antonio Nicola Scarlatti, composer, is born.
literature Le Misanthrope by Molière is palyed at the Palais-Royal, Paris.
science & philosophy

Laws of gravity established by Cambridge University mathematics professor Isaac Newton, 23, state that the attraction exerted by gravity between any two bodies is directly proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Newton has returned to his native Woolsthorpe because the plague at Cambridge has closed Trinity College, where he is a fellow; he has observed the fall of an apple in an orchard at Woolsthorpe and calculates that at a distance of one foot the attraction between two objects is 100 times stronger than at 10 feet. Although he does not fully comprehend the nature of gravity, he concludes that the force exerted on the apple is the same as that exerted on Earth by the moon.

Calculusis invented by Isaac Newton will prove to be one of the most effective tool for scientific investigation ever produced by mathematics.

Nov 14, Samuel Pepys reported the on first blood transfusion, which was between dogs.

The plague decimates London and Isaac Newton moved to the country. He had already discovered the binomial theorem at Cambridge and was offered the post of professor of mathematics. Newton formulates his law of universal gravitation.

A French Academy of Sciences (Académie Royale des Sciences) founded by Louis XIV at Paris seeks to rival London's 4-year-old Royal Society. Jean Baptiste Colbert has persuaded the king to begin subsidizing scientists. Christiaan Huygens, along with 19 other scientists, is elected as a founding member. After the French Revolution, the Royale is dropped and the character of the academy changes. It later becomes the Institut de France.

history

Sep 2, The Great Fire of London, started at Pudding Lane, began to demolish about four-fifths of London when in the house of King Charles II's baker, Thomas Farrinor, forgets to extinguish his oven. The flames raged uncontrollably for the next few days, helped along by the wind, as well as by warehouses full of oil and other flammable substances. Approximately 13,200 houses, 90 churches and 50 livery company halls burn down or explode. But the fire claimed only 16 lives, and it actually helped impede the spread of the deadly Black Plague, as most of the disease-carrying rats were killed in the fire.

Because almost all European paper is made from recycled cloth rags, which are becoming increasingly scarce as more and more books and other materials are printed, the English Parliament bans burial in cotton or linen cloth so as to preserve the cloth for paper manufacture.

1667
vermeer's life

Vermeer's name is mentioned in a poem by Arnold Bon in Dirck van Bleyswijck's Beschryvinge der Stadt Delft (Description of the City of Delft) published in 1667. It is the most significant and direct reference to Vermeer's art to be found. The poem written by Arnold Bon, Bleyswyck's publisher, was composed in the honor of Carel Fabritius who had died in the famous ammunitions explosion. Vermeer's name is lauded in the poem's last stanza.

Thus did this Phoenix, to our loss, expire,
In the midst and at the height of his powers,
But happily there arose out of the fire
Vermeer, who masterfully trod in his path.

Maria Thins empowers Vermeer to collect various debts owed to her and to reinvest the money according to his will and discretion. Vermeer's mother-on-law evidently maintained her moral and financial support of Vermeer and his family.

Another of Vermeer's children is buried in the Nieuwe Kerk in Delft.

dutch painting Gabriel Metsu, ecclectic Dutch painter, dies.
european painting & architecture

Francesco Borromini, Italian sculptor and architect, dies. Borromini designed the San Ivo della Sapienza church in Rome

Alonso Cano, Spanish painter and architect, dies.

music German composer-organist-harpsichordist Johann Jakob Froberger dies at Héricourt, France. His keyboard suites will be published in 1693, arranged in the order that will become standard: allemande, courante, sarabande, and gigue.
literature

Paradise Lost is written by John Milton, who has been blind since 1652 but has dictated to his daughters the 10-volume work on the fall of man, Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven. Milton's Adam questions the angel Raphael about celestial mechanics, Raphael replies with some vague hints and then says that "the rest from Man or Angel the great Architect did wisely conceal and not divulge His secrets to be scann'd by them who ought rather admire." The work enjoys sales of 1,300 copies in 18 months and will be enlarged to 12 volumes in 1684, the year of Milton's death; Annus Mirabilis by John Dryden is about the Dutch War and last year's Great Fire.

Nov 7, Jean Racine's Andromaque, premiered in Paris.

science & philosophy National Observatory, Paris, founded
history Pope Alexander VII dies. Giulio Rospigliosi becomes Pope Clement IX.

c. 1667 In France, during the reign of King Louis XIV, the fork begins to achieve popularity as an eating implement. Formerly, only knives and spoons had been used.

Jun 18, The Dutch fleet sailed up the Thames and threatened London. They burned 3 ships and capture the English flagship.

Jun 21, The Peace of Breda endsthe Second Anglo-Dutch War (1664-67) and sees the Dutch cede New Amsterdam (on Manhattan Island) to the English in exchange for the island of Surinam.

De Verstandige Kok (The Sensible Cook) is published for the first time. Geared towards middle- and upper middle-class families, the book advises a regular and balanced diet, including fresh meat at least once a week, frequent servings of bread and cheese, stew, fresh vegetables and salads. While simple dishes, such as porridge, pancakes and soup with bread are eaten by all classes, studies reveal that only the affluent have regular access to fresh vegetables during the period; the less wealthy depend on dried peas and beans.
Double Portrait of Isaac Massa <br />and, Beatrix van der Laen

Double Portrait of Isaac Massa and Beatrix van der Laen (detail)
Frans Hals
c. 1622
Oil on canvas, 140 x 166,5 cm.
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

Even though the United Provinces boasted the most vigorous and well-distributed wealth in Europe, the differences between social classes were nonetheless frightening. At the bottom of the social ladder, women lived in a perpetual state of undernourishment. Life was a daily struggle with disease, tragic living and working conditions as well as the dangers of perpetual maternity. Living conditions were so strenuous that few were overweight and the average height was about 1.54 meters.

Rich women were much better off and hardly moderate in their consumption. Women rarely worked enough to offset their daily intake of calories. They avoided strenuous activities and rarely carried out heavy domestic chores which were delegated to their servants even though they habitually accompanied their servants to the markets. Their diet included large amounts of meat, fish, fruit, sweets and abundant amount of imported wines and gastronomical delicacies. They had more money and more time to care for their own appearances even though a considerable number of the formal portraits clearly show that women of the upper classes were generally corpulent, but, at least in the second half of the seventeenth century, exquisitely dressed. Affluent women had an average height of about 1.59 meters.

An unequivocal point to be made is that Dutch women were notably better off than women in the rest of Europe. This is upheld by eye-witness reports including numerous foreign observers who were both delighted and abhorred by what they had experienced.

From a legal point of view Dutch women enjoyed conspicuous advantages over their European counterparts. Dutch women could inherit and bequeath property in their own right. If they were wronged during their marriage, they had legal recourse. Vermeer’s mother-in-law was able to obtain a conspicuous part of her husband’s money after years of physical and moral mistreatment. Adultery, unusual abuse or willful desertion could bring "separation of table and bed" effectively annulling the union.

Young Girl with a Guitar, Gerrit van Honthorst

Young Girl with a Guitar (detail)
Gerrit van Honthorst
Oil on canvas, 82 x 58 cm.
Musée du Louvre, Paris

While it is true that none of the women who posed for Vermeer are conventional beauties, they are not without their own special charm and the artist must have made some effort to improve their appearance.

As Eddy de Jongh pointed out, "Just how drastically cosmetic interventions were applied is hard to say, but it is a fair assumption that not every painted face with regular features, and not every painted peach skin was an accurate depiction of the original. The mere fact that the vast majority of faces in 17th-century paintings are smooth and unblemished is enough to make us suspicious, given the prevalence of smallpox epidemics at the time. Smallpox was a dreaded disease against which all remedies were helpless, and those who survived it were generally left disfigured by pockmarks. Among women of the higher classes, in particular, pockmarks are known to have aroused feelings of shame."

In any case, the use of cosmetics in 17th century by wealthy middle and upper-class women (and men)—both for nurturing and decorative effects—is out of the question. Their popularity becomes evident in numerous surviving recipes by apothecaries or quacks as well as in the frequent depiction of powder brushes, small bottles or boxes for oils, crèmes or perfumes in the popular "Lady at her toilet"-scenes. Even though the Dutch drew enormously from the fashionable French court of Louis XIV to enhance their life style, the Dutch women were and still are famous for their clear, soft complexion due to the moist air.

Clothing the Naked, Michael Sweerts

Clothing the Naked
Michael Sweerts
c. 1660-1661
Oil on canvas, 81.9 x 114.3 cm.
Metropolitan Museum of Art

Although Michael Sweerts was disregarded by contemporary chroniclers of painting, and upon his death his name and works were quickly forgotten, modern art scholarship has linked his achievements with Vermeer.

Sweerts had sojourned some years in Rome absorbing the lessons of Caravaggism but his works are never aggressive. His characters, caught in a moment of reflection, have a stillness, distance and melancholy which evokes something of Vermeer's finest works. He is also one of the few painters who depicted the lower classes individuals with a dignity paramount to that reserved for powerful upper-class portraiture. Like Vermeer, his protean style suggests different identities and has long confused art historians.

From a formal point of view, Sweerts was always able to think in the broadest of pictorial terms avoiding finicky, descriptive detail so popular in genre painting of the time. The monumentality of his figures and pitch-black background of the Clothing the Naked (see image above) bring to mind Vermeer's Mistress and Maid while the Young Boy with a Nosegay has often been conjectured as a direct source for Vermeer's Girl with a Pearl Earring. Sweerts ability to capture the sheen of fine exotic silks in two canvases with a minimum of fuss would seem to have appealed to the serious Vermeer.

Oddly, Sweerts' own career is almost as obscure as Vermeer's and little is known of his personal life. His name, too, quickly faded from memory only to be properly evaluated hundreds of years later. Sweerts began his career as a history painter but is most appreciated for his exquisite depictions of individual people.

Old Man in Oriental Garb, Jan Lievens

Old Man in Oriental Garb
Jan Lievens
1628-30
Oil on canvas, 135 x 101 cm.
Schloss Sanssouci, Berlin

Although to the modern eye, the Study of a Young Woman would seem a portrait, a Dutch 17th-century observer would have immediately called it a tronie, an obsolete term that refers to a type of picture made familiar by Rembrandt and his followers.

Despite the fact that tronies were often strongly individualized, they were most admired for the painter’s ability to capture one particular psychological state or pictorial qualities. Most were based upon living models, including the artists themselves, relatives or colleagues. However, they were not intended as formal portraits but were kept on spec in the artist’s studio ready to stimulate the potential buyer’s appetite. An old man (see left), a comely young woman, a "Turk," or a dashing soldier were all standard tronies subjects. Artists favored garments that looked particularly exotic which would offer an opportunity to show off painterly technique, one of the strongest calling cards of the professional artist. They also served as a storehouse of facial types and expressions for figures in history paintings.

Judging by the number of tronies mentioned in inventories, this was an extremely popular genre which accommodated the necessities of both the artist and his client.

Study of a Young  Woman (detail), Johannes Vermeer

Although the present picture has been historically overshadowed by its likely pendant, The Girl with a Pearl Earring, it is nevertheless an expressive and technical, albeit understated, tour de force. The modeling of the young girl's face is so subtle that it is difficult to find a comparable Dutch image. Vermeer's blurred, painterly modeling creates form through shifts in tone rather than by the sharp modeling favored by European history painters whereby line plays and major part in defining each feature the model's physiognomy. A detail of the eye (see left) demonstrates how vague yet utterly "sincere" is the description the girl's moon-like face.

Vermeer employed a particularly limited palette for the depiction of the flesh tones in the present work. By those times, the pigments needed to depict flesh, considered by art theorists as the highest achievements of the artist, had been largely codified in "recipe" books although there did exist variations from nation to nation and school to school. Wilem Beurs describes in his De Groote Waereld in 't Kleen Geschilder (1692) thirteen mixture composed of nine pigments required to paint people of all different ages and genders as well as of distinct emotions.

Pictura (An Allegory of Painting), Frans van Mieris

Pictura (An Allegory of Painting) (detail)
Frans van Mieris
1661
Oil on copper, 5 x 3 1/2 in.
J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles

The detail of The Art of Painting (see image left) by Frans van Mieris, painted about five years before Vermeer's work, illustrates the typically restricted Dutch palette set out for depicting flesh. From top to bottom we can make out white lead, yellow ocher, vermillion, red madder, raw sienna or red ocher (?), umber and black.

Although the pigments of Vermeer's face not been specifically analyzed, it would seem that the artist used only white lead modified by a hint of vermillion, a bright red with a decidedly orange overtone, to depict the principal passages of the strongly illuminated passages, excluding the conventional yellow ocher. This simple mixture works well with the famous glowing milk-white incarnates of Dutch women.

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