Christ in the House of Martha and Mary

lc. 1654–1655
Oil on canvas
160 x 142 cm. (63 x 55 7/8 in.)
National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh
inv. 1670
there are 9 hotspots in the image below
Christ in the House of Martha and Mary, Johannes Vermeer

Christ in the House of Mary and Martha is thought to be one of the earliest known paintings by Vermeer. The strongest argument for its early date is the difference in painting techniques between this work and his later ones. In no other painting does he focus so exclusively of the figures in the central core of the composition. Vermeer in his mature works was very conscious of the relationship of his figures to the environment, a concern not evident in this work.

Arthur K. Wheelock, Jr., Jan Vermeer, 1981

Facsimile signature of Johannes Vermeer's Chrsit in the House of Martha and Mary
inscribed lower left, on bench: IVMeer (IVM in ligature)

Signature of Johannes Vermeer's Christ in the House of Martha and Mary

Albert Blankert, Vermeer: 1632–1675, 1975

c. 1655
Arthur K. Wheelock Jr. Vermeer: The Complete Works, New York, 1997

c. 1654–1655
Walter Liedtke Vermeer: The Complete Paintings, New York, 2008

c. 1654–1655
Wayne Franits, Vermeer, 2015

The support of the painting is a fine, plain-weave linen with a thread count of 12 x 17 per cm.². A vertical seam is in line with Christ's elbow. The canvas has been paste-lined and the original tacking edges have been removed. The double ground consists of a layer of white chalk bound with a protein medium followed by a red earth layer. In the background and in the shadowed flesh tones of Christ and Martha the red ground is only partially covered by very thin brown glazes. What appears to have been a glaze on Christ's violet tunic is preserved only in the texture of the brushwork. The highlights on all the drapery are painted with impasto: on Christ's blue robe, which was painted with indigo, smalt, and lead white, the brushstrokes are about 1 cm. wide and indicate a square-tipped brush.

Numerous wet-in-wet touches include the details of Martha's waistband, the modeling of the headclothes, and the decoration on the carpet. The speed of execution and the fluidity of the paint is also signified by the splashy, broken edges of many of the forms such as the upper edges of the table and Mary's profile.

There are several alterations: Christ's profile and ear, the fingers of His left hand and the edge of Martha's right sleeve. The edge of some of the forms encroach significantly on adjacent areas such as the upper edge of Christ's robe overlapping tunic. Mary's left hand appears to have been painted over Christ's blue robe.

*Johannes Vermeer (exh. cat., National Gallery of Art and Royal Cabinet of Paintings Mauritshuis - Washington and The Hague, 1995, edited by Arthur K. Wheelock Jr.)


Johannes Vermeer's Christ in the House of Martha and Mary with frame
image thanks to Mike Buffington

  • collection Abbot Family, Bristol, c. 1880; furniture and antiques dealer, Bristol, 1884, sold to a private party and bought back;
  • Arthur Leslie Collie, London;
  • [Forbes and Paterson, london, 1901, sold to Coats];
  • William Allan Coats, Skelmorlie Castle, Dalskairth, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland (1901–1926);
  • his sons Thomas H. and J. A. Coats (1926–1927);
  • 1927 donation by the Coats heirs to the National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh (inv. 1670).
  • London 1929
    Exhibition of Dutch Art, 1450–1900
    Royal Academy of Arts
    147, no. 310
  • Amsterdam, October 21–November 3, 1935
    Vermeer tentoonstelling ter herdenking van de plechtige opening van het Rijksmuseum op 13 juli 1885
    26–27, no. 162 and ill. 162
  • Rotterdam July 9–October 9, 1935
    Vermeer, oorsprong en invloed. Fabritius, de Hooch, de Witte
    Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
    34, no. 79 and ill. 59
  • Utrecht June 15–August 3, 1952
    Caravaggio en de Nederlanden
    Centraal Museum
    57–58, no. 92 and ill. 71
  • Edinburgh 1992
    Dutch Art and Scotland: A Reflection of Taste
    National Gallery of Scotland
    150–151, no. 71 and ill.
  • Washington D.C. November 12, 1995–February 11, 1996
    Johannes Vermeer
    90–95, no. 2 and ill.
  • The Hague March 1–June 2, 1996
    Johannes Vermeer
    90–95, no. 2 and ill.
  • New York March 8–May 27, 2001
    Vermeer and the Delft School
    Metropolitan Museum of Art
    no. 65 and ill.
  • London June 20–September 16, 2001
    Vermeer and the Delft School
    National Gallery
    no. 65 and ill
  • Tokyo August 2–December 14, 2008
    Vermeer and the Delft Style
    Metropolitan Art Museum
    164–166, no. 25 and ill.
  • The Hague May 12–August 22, 2010
    The Young Vermeer
    26–29, no. 1 and ill.
  • Dresden September 3–December 28, 2010
    The Young Vermeer
    Old Masters Picture Gallery
    30–35, no. 2 and ill.
  • Edinburgh December 8, 2010–February, 2011
    The Young Vermeer
    National Gallery of Scotland
    30–35, no. 2 and ill.
  • Rimini January 21–June 3, 2012
    Da Vermeer a Kandinsky
    Castel Sismondo
    76 and ill.
  • San Francisco March 7–May 3, 2015
    Botticelli to Braque: Masterpieces from the National Galleries of Scotland
    M. H. de Young Memorial Museum
    52, no. 15 and ill. 53
  • Fort Worth (TX) June 28–September 20, 2015
    Botticelli to Braque: Masterpieces from the National Galleries of Scotland
    Kimbell Art Museum
  • Sydney October 24, 2015–February 14, 2016
    The Greats: Masterpieces from the National Galleries of Scotland
    The Art Gallery of New South Wales
    62, no. 13 and ill.
Johannes Vermeer's Christ in the House of Martha and Mary in scale
vermeer's life

On January 10 Vermeer witnesses an act in which he signs as "Johannis Vermeer master painter" together with a certain captain named Lambertus Morleth. Two years earlier Vermeer's name had appeared with two captains as well as with his own uncle, Lieutenant Balthens. It is presumed that Vermeer had military acquaintances.

At the end of April Vermeer again signs as a witness for a debt acknowledgement by a carpenter to a food merchant.

Vermeer does not witness the baptism of his sister Gertruy's child in May. This was most likely due to the artist's conversion to Catholicism upon his marriage. Even though he was condemned to a second-class citizenship in the Protestant-dominated Delft, there are signs of public esteem and Vermeer was almost certainly not actively persecuted for his religious beliefs.

Delft, with a population of 25,000 to 30,000 had attained the peak of its artistic vitality.

A lost work (cited in a distinguished art collection) entitled Jupiter, Venus and Mercury, is ascribed to Vermeer. The young and ambitious artist may have painted this mythological scene and his first extant work, Diana and her Companions, in order to appeal to the classical tastes in vogue at the rich aristocratic court in nearby The Hague.

By 1654–1655, with a population of 25,000 to 30,000, Delft had attained the peak of it artistic vitality. It was soon to disintegrate as many painters of the town left in search of more attractive prospects in larger, richer cities, such as Amsterdam. By the mid 1670s Vermeer was one of the few artists who remained. Had it not been for strong personal reasons, Vermeer too may have moved to Amsterdam as Potter, De Witte, Van Aelst, and De Hooch had done.

dutch painting

Jacob Vrel is born. Vrel's seemingly naïve style and his pictures' rarity have prompted speculation that he was an amateur. Scholars most often link Vrel's manner to Delft artists such as Johannes Vermeer and Pieter de Hooch, but elements in his street scenes may indicate connections to Haarlem, Friesland, Flanders, or the lower Rhineland.

On October 12 the Delft Thunderclap, the explosion of the municipal powder magazine, destroys the northeastern side of the city of Delft, killing painter Carel Fabritius, Rembrandt's most talented pupil. Fabritius was at his easel painting and his home, studio and most of his paintings were destroyed. The gunpowder magazine, which contained about 80,000 pounds of powder, blew up "with such a horrible rush and force that the arches of heaven seemed to crack and burst." In the same year Fabritius paints The Goldfinch, which may have been a source of inspiration for Vermeer.

Rembrandt paints a portrait of poet-businessman Jan Six and A Woman Bathing in a Stream.

After studying with Rembrandt, Nicholaes Maes returns to Dordrecht and specializes in intimate household scenes.

Jacob van Loo paints An Allegory of Venus and Cupid as Lady World and Homo Bulla.

October 12, The Delft Explosion destroys the city of Delft, killing painter Carel Fabritius. His home, studio, and most of his paintings were destroyed. In the same year he paints The Goldfinch which may have been a source of inspiration for Vermeer.

european painting & architecture

In Nuremberg Johann Amos Comenius publishes the first picture book for children, Orbis sensualium pictus.


Lady Dorothy Osborne plays the lead role in a country-house staging of Sir William Berkeley's tragicomedy The Lost Lady. While the London theatres remain closed, amateur theatricals continue at private houses in England. Like performances of courtly masques before 1642, many of these performances feature women, foreshadowing the acceptance of professional women performers in the early Restoration era.

Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery writes Parlhenissa, a novel.

John Milton writes Defensio Secunda.

science & philosophy

On November 23 Blaise Pascal, scientist and philosopher, undergoes a mystical experience. He abandons his scientific work and devotes himself to philosophy and theology. His two most famous works date from this period: the Lettres provinciales and the Pensées. He entered a hermitage at Port-Royal des Champs and never again published in his own name. He came up with the idea that believing in God is safer than not believing because it might gain one eternal life. He was a Jansenist, and rejected free will in favor of predestination.

De Circuli Magnitudine Inventa by Dutch mathematician-astronomer-physicist Christiaan Huygens, 25, attracts widespread attention.


On January 10 Russia's Czar Alexander announces a war against Lithuania and Poland which lasts until 1667.

On April 12 England, Ireland and Scotland are united.

On June 7 Louis XIV is crowned King of France in Rheims.

Shah Jahan completes the Taj Mahal. Master builders, masons, calligraphers, etc., along with more than 20,000 laborers, worked for 22 years under orders of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to complete the great mausoleum for the shah's beloved wife.
vermeer's life

Dec. 14, "Sr. Johannes Reijnijersz. Vermeer master painter," and his wife "Juffr. Catharina Bolnes" appear before the notary Rota to guarantee a debt of 250 guilders that the artist's father had contracted. Both Vermeer and his wife sign the document. The appearance of the stylish "Sr." on the document is a secure sign of the artist's rise in social status.

dutch painting

c. 1656 Jacob van Ruisdael moves to Amsterdam.

Rembrandt paints Woman Bathing in a Stream and the Polish Rider.

Pieter de Hooch, who directly influences Vermeer, joins the guild of Saint Luke in Delft, two years after he had arrived from Haarlem. He will remain in Delft and produce his finest works until 1660.

c. 1658 Miendert Hobbema becomes an apprentice in Jacob van Ruisdael's Amsterdam studio. In the exercise of his craft Hobbema was patient beyond all conception. It is doubtful whether any one ever so completely mastered as he did the still life of woods and hedges, or mills and pools. Nor can we believe that he obtained this mastery otherwise than by constantly dwelling in the same neighborhood, say in Guelders or on the Dutch Westphalian border, where day after day he might study the branching and foliage of trees and underwood embowering cottages and mills, under every variety of light, in every shade of transparency, in all changes produced by the seasons.

european painting & architecture

Luca Giordano develops a rich baroque vein deriving in particular from Rubens. He was nicknamed "Luca Fa Presto" (Luke work quickly) because of his prodigious speed of execution and huge output. He began in the circle of Ribera, but his style became much more colorful under the influence of such great decorative painters as Veronese, whose works he saw on his extensive travels. Indeed, he absorbed a host of influences and was said to be able to imitate other artists' styles with ease. His work was varied also in subject-matter, although he was primarily a religious and mythological painter. Soon after the death of Charles in 1700, Giordano, now wealthy, returned to Naples. He spent large sums in acts of munificence, and was particularly liberal to his poorer brother artists. One of his maxims was that the good painter is the one whom the public like, and that the public are attracted more by colour than by design. Giordano has been criticized as being a prolific trader of all styles, and master of none. He has been viewed as a proto-Tiepolo, reanimating that grand manner of Cortona in a style that would brighten with Tiepolo.

c. 1655 Murillo paints genre scenes in Seville, where, from 1658 to 1660, he was involved in the founding of the Academy of Art, sharing its direction, in 1660, with the architect, Francisco Herrera el Mozo. This was his period of greatest activity, and he received numerous important commissions, among them the altar piece for the Augustinian monastery, the paintings for Santa María la Blanca (completed in 1665), and others.


Aug 13, Johann Christoph Denner, inventor of the clarinet, was born.

Giuseppe Alfiero: La fedeltà trionfante.

May 4, Bartolomeo Cristofori, inventor of the piano is born.

science & philosophy

Blaise Pascal: Lettres provinciales, against Jesuits

Mar 25, Christiaan Huygens discovered Titan, Saturn's largest satellite. Huygens was a great figure in the fields of research into mathematical physics, astronomy and optics, and among the founders of mechanics and optical physics. He made astronomical observations about the planets, of the nebula of Orion and of the Moon, all reported in Systema Saturnium.

Hooke publishes the Micrographia.


Pope Innocent X dies; Fabio Chigi becomes Pope Alexander VII.

Spinoza excommunicated

Apr 26, Dutch West Indies Co. denied Peter Stuyvesant's desire to exclude Jews from New Amsterdam.

Sep 26, Peter Stuyvesant recaptured Dutch Ft. Casimir from Swedish in Delaware.

The first slave auction was held in New Amsterdam (later NYC).

French society uses a clean plate for each new dish but Englishmen continue to dine off trenchers—wooden platters that give hearty eaters the name "trenchermen."

Rum from Jamaica is introduced into the Royal Navy to supplement beer, which goes sour after a few weeks at sea.

Mary and Martha are the most familiar set of sisters in the Bible. Both Luke and John describe them as friends of Jesus. Luke's story, though only four verses long, has been a source of interpretation and debate for centuries.

Preaching to the people, Jesus Christ arrived in Bethany, a town situated not far from Jerusalem beyond the Mount of Olives where a woman named Martha welcomed him into her home. Martha had a sister named Mary, who sat at the Lord's feet and listened to what he was saying. But Martha was distracted by her many tasks; so she came to him and asked, "Lord, do you not care that my sister has left me to do all the work by myself? Tell her then to help me." But the Lord answered her, "Martha, Martha, you are worried and distracted by many things; there is need of only one thing. Mary has chosen the better part, which will not be taken away from her" (Luke 10:38-42).

This subject was more popular among Flemish than Dutch artists, possibly owing to the religious connotations. In the religious context of the time, the scene illustrated one of the fundamental differences between Catholics and Protestants: the latter sought salvation in action while the former placed greater value on the contemplative life.

Whereas harsh environmental conditions made travel in many European countries problematic, the level planes of the Netherlands were crossed by an extensive and well cared for network of canals that had been dug to regulate the flow of water. They also furnished an extraordinarily practical means of heavy transportation, faster than any way on land. Dutch trade, which had been originally based on spices, textiles, and tulip bulbs, gradually extended to paintings. The fact that Dutch paintings were small and easy to handle made it easier to place them on the market.

These conditions, coupled with a widespread economic prosperity, favored the explosion of the Dutch art market. Over a breathtakingly short period, the Netherlands produced artists of the stature of Rembrandt, Vermeer, Frans Hals, Jan Steen, Jacob van Ruisdael, and Pieter de Hooch. These artists belonged to the same guilds; they worked in the same commercial marketplace. They knew one another's work, if only from prints. They competed, taught each other, collected each other's work, and on occasion collaborated.

Vermeer's art draws much from this liquid scene. He borrowed from every source available, from the great masters of the Italian Renaissance to his fellow painters who lived a few steps away from his studio.

Critics believe that a considerable part of Vermeer's oeuvre is based on themes and compositions pioneered by his colleagues. He, however, one of those rare artists who is capable of seeing great possibilities in the works of less talented artists and was uniquely capable of infusing new life and moral depth into hackneyed motifs.

Exercitia spiritualia (Spiritual Exercises)  of Ignatius of Loyola 1548

Exercitia spiritualia (Spiritual Exercises)
of Ignatius of Loyola 1548
First Edition by Antonio Bladio (Rome)

What or who might have motivated Vermeer to paint Christ in the House of Martha and Mary is difficult to determine. Although rejected by modern scholars, it was once believed that Vermeer had apprenticed with Leonaert Bramer, a Catholic and close friend to the Vermeer family in Delft. Bramer was the most prestigious figure in Delft painting at the time and was known to have traveled to Italy. Particularly revealing is the elder artist's intercession on behalf of the young painter in his betrothal to Catharina Bolnes, the daughter of the well-to-do Delft patrician, Maria Thins. Bramer may have sealed the bargain by guaranteeing the young painter's future and a quick conversion to Catholicism, a rare event in 17th-century Netherlands. Just the same, no records have survived which mention Vermeer's apprenticeship and his first works have almost nothing in common with Bramer's.

In any case, it has been hypothesized that Vermeer's Christ is a tangible sign of his classical training combined with a newfound Catholic sentiments, although the picture may have been commissioned by someone particularly interested in the theme.

Martha and Mary represented two opposing personalities: the active and the contemplative. Christ's defense of the contemplative life suited Jesuit ideals and was contained within the Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola. Vermeer's treatment of this subject, which focuses on the message that Christ is transmitting, may reflect his sympathetic response to the Catholic Church in the mid-1650s. Vermeer's mother-in-law, Maria Thins, maintained close contacts to the Jesuits in Delft.

Christ in the House of Martha and Mary, Erasmus Quellinus

Christ in the House of Martha and Mary
Erasmus Quellinus
c. 1645
Oil on canvas, 175 x 243 cm.
Musée des Beaux Arts, Valenciennes

In no other painting did Vermeer focus so exclusively on the figures. Within a few years, however, he dramatically changed his artistic course and became absorbed in the relationship of the figure to the environment, rather than with the figures themselves.

Numerous visual sources were available to the young Vermeer for this composition. The most likely model was a work by the Fleming Erasmus Quellinus (Musée des Beaux Arts, Valenciennes).

Kitchen Scene with Christ in the House of Martha and Mary, Diego Velasquez

Kitchen Scene with Christ in
the House of Martha and Mary

Diego Velásquez
Oil on canvas, 63 x 103.5 cm.
National Gallery, London

In northern Europe, but not only, the motif of Christ's visit to Martha and Mary has inspired many paintings which were in essence only barely veiled still-lives. The most illustrious southern European example is the version by Diego Velásquez (see left). Here, the Spanish master lavished great attention on the two bodegones figures in the foreground and on the kitchen utensils and food, perhaps drawn from the artist's own living conditions. Relegated to a secondary role, the religious scene takes place in what appears to be a see-through window of a rustic kitchen which, however, can almost be mistaken for a framed picture.

Closer to home, Pieter De Bloot's version of the theme shows a sprawling kitchen scene which undoubtedly reflected the Dutch preoccupation with household chores and domestic virtue rather than an explicit commitment to spiritual matters.

The Four Elements: Fire Detail, Joachim Beuckelaer

The Four Elements: Fire (detail)
Joachim Beuckelaer
Oil on canvas, 157.5 x 215.5 cm.
National Gallery, London

One of the most extraordinary renditions of the Christ in the house of Martha and Mary theme is Joachim Beuckelaer's Fire, one work of a set of four pictures which take as their themes the four elements of "Earth," "Water," "Air" and "Fire." In each, seductive representations of market produce for sale or for cooking are combined with biblical episodes. In Fire, modern viewers are puzzled by the importance given to the worldly kitchen scene in respects to the tiny biblical scene relegated to the furthest point of the painting's complex spatial construction (see detail left). Beuckelaer consigns the teaching of the divine word to the back of the painting, devoting the entire foreground to active life.

Bathsheba, Jacob van Loo

Jacob van Loo
Oil on canvas, 81 x 68 cm.
Musée du Musée du Louvre, Paris

Although the Bible had been one of the most important sources of inspirations for European painters by the mid-17th century, still life, portraiture, landscape and interiors had largely replaced traditional religious and historical subjects in the Netherlands. Just the same, contemporary art theorists still defended the intellectual and moral superiority of istoria, or history painting (see example left), and many of the most ambitious painters, like Rembrandt, devoted their energies to its mastery.

History painting offered uplifting or cautionary narratives that were intended to encourage contemplation of the meaning of life. It also satisfied a desire for religious imagery that remained strong, even after most traditional religious pictures had been removed from Calvinist churches in the wave of iconoclasts, which resulted in loss of a great part of the early Dutch pictorial heritage.

For unknown reasons Vermeer soon abandoned history painting and embraced the "modern" mode of painting practiced by celebrated artists like Gerrit ter Borch, Gerrit Dou and Frans van Mieris. Vermeer would only take up the religious motif again in the late Allegory of Faith, a full-fledged religious work set in a 17th-century domestic interior, a somewhat awkward combination of the two modes of painting, at least for modern sensibilities.

Christ in the House of Martha and Mary (diagram), Johannes Vermeer

From the onset of his career, Vermeer was keenly aware of the expressive role of composition. In order to understand how effectively he employed composition in the present work, it is necessary to be familiar with the religious implications of the Christ in the house of Martha and Mary theme in 17th-century Netherlands.

Commentators on this famous biblical story had long recognized the contrast between the active life of Martha (who complains to Christ about her sister's lack of help in domestic chores) and Mary's contemplative nature (who passively attends to the words of Christ neglecting Martha's call for help). The sisters had been traditionally identified as symbols of opposing paths of salvation. Martha represented the necessities of performing good works while Mary shuns earthly concerns and puts all her faith in the message of eternal life promised by Christ. This story illustrates one of the central debates between the Protestant and Catholic religious cults.

For Protestant reformers the story supported the fact that salvation can be obtained by adopting the belief in forgiveness of sin by a merciful God earned by Christ's Crucifixion. Roman Catholics, on the other hand, emphasized not only salvation by faith in God but by proper action. For the latter, salvation could be earned through acts of humility and good works. Although Christ did define Mary's contemplative role as the "better half," Catholics pointed out that Mary's faith would be incomplete without an active life.

By stressing certain elements of the composition or playing down others and organizing the positions of each, an artist is able to manipulate the meaning of the parable in favor of one or the other point of view. It has been frequently remarked that Vermeer balanced the two figures of Martha and Mary in the composition giving equal compositional weight to each. On the picture plane, both touch Christ and all three of the figures are invisibly bound in an imaginary circle further enhancing their unity. It may be that Vermeer was aware of the conflict between the Protestant and Catholic positions and attempted a synthesis in his painting through a reconciliatory balance.

Christ in the House of Mary and Martha, Jacopo Tintoretto

Christ in the House of Mary and Martha
Jacopo Tintoretto
c. 1580
Oil on canvas, 200 x 132 cm.
Alte Pinakothek, München

Even in the first works, Vermeer clearly demonstrated his ability to draw visual, technical and intellectual inspiration from a variety of sources and weave them together with originality. This work draws upon sources as diverse as Italian and Netherlandish painting.

Although hidden to the untrained eye, the three figures are bound in a circular composition (see Special Topic above) unifying theme and composition. Circular compositions were frequently employed to unite complex figure groupings and impede the viewer's eye from straying aimlessly around the picture. Curiously, Tintoretto's own Christ in the House of Martha and Mary, painted about 70 years earlier than Vermeer's version, presents a noticeable circular compositions. If, however, the implied circle becomes too influential, the observer may feel subliminally entrapped. As a remedy Dutch artists often included a sort of escape route, termed a doorsien, such as the background scenes in Tintoretto's painting. Vermeer provided a similar visual relief in the half-opened doorway (in Dutch, doorkijkje) to the dark recess of the upper left-hand corner of the composition.

St. Sebastian Tended by Irene and her Maid, Hendrick ter Brugghen<

Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene and her Maid
Hendrick ter Brugghen
Oil on canvas, 149 x 119.4 cm.
Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin, Ohio

In his formative years, Vermeer surveyed a wider range of artistic possibilities and combined them together with his innate sense of measure and moral seriousness.

Among Dutch paintings related to Vermeer's Christ in the House of Martha and Mary is the Saint Sebastian Tended by Irene and her Maid by Hendrick ter Brugghen with its tight figural composition. The young Vermeer was equally impressed by other aspects of Ter Brugghen's art, such as the control of light and the simplicity of modeling. Although the brushwork of the legendary Frans Hals and Rembrandt more readily engage the eye, Ter Brugghen's manipulation of paint with brush is among the most masterful in European easel painting, and it was not overlooked in his time. When visiting Amsterdam, the great Peter Paul Rubens, Europe's foremost painter, visited Ter Brugghen's studio while passing that of Rembrandt.

In Ter Brugghen's Saint Sebastian, form is conjured up by sweeping brushstrokes of juicy paint. Only such a level of technique can make painting seem like a natural activity. When painting the head and headgear of the kneeling Mary, the receptive young Vermeer may have wished to imitate the compactness of the illuminated head in the central figure in Ter Brugghen's composition. He may have understood that only broad, robust brushwork could hold together such a large-scale composition while conferring the gravity and stillness he strove for.

Christ Washing the Disciples' Feet, Garofalo

Christ Washing the Disciples' Feet(detail)
c. 1520–1525
Oil on panel, 35.9 x 52.1 cm.
National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.

Dress has always played an important part in history painting and portraiture. One of the cardinal principles of a traditional history painting, such as the present work by Vermeer, is that contemporary dress must be avoided at all costs. This was in part because most historical figures could be recognized by a traditional dress and in part because contemporary fashion was thought to be unsuitable for expressing the universal principles worthy of what art theorists considered the uppermost goal of painting.

However, there was no precise agreement as to exactly what dress constituted the most appropriate for history painting. Costume expert Marieke van Winkel observed that art theorists provided only general prescriptions for the proper clothes (and even colors) for the most important protagonists. Kings, for example, of any time or age, should wear a medieval crown and ermine cloak and youth should wear brightly colored clothing. However, as much as art theorists attempted to guide the artists' hands and urged them to consult texts of the Classics, each painter solved the problem of visualizing an unknown past in a different way. In reality, ancient texts provided scant details that would be of practical help, and the Bible, one of the principal sources of history painting motifs, is completely silent in this regards.

In general, simple, loose costumes with billowing drapery that cannot be pin-pointed to a particular time or place were favored because they offer latitude for painterly interpretation and per se evoke a sense of timelessness. Although a painter might add accessories from his own collection, most worked from their imagination or prints of old master paintings. In any case, a certain flowing naturalness was one of the requisite qualities of any depiction of drapery.

The Artist Eating Oysters in an Interior, Jan Steen

The Artist Eating Oysters in an Interior (detail)
Jan Steen
c. 1660
Oil on canvas, 102.8 x 133.9 cm.
Private collection

Vermeer's robed Christ sits appears to be sitting on a typical solid, x-framed armchair reserved for figures of authority. Such chairs are found in paintings of similar theme and in many Dutch interior paintings as well. For many centuries, the chair was a symbolic article of state and dignity and not found in lower- or middle-class households. Common people sat on simple three-legged stools, benches, or "barrel chairs." No chairs existed for children. In the Renaissance chairs became a standard item of furniture for anyone who could afford to buy it. In the late 16th century, heavy oak armchairs, intended for the head of the household, became popular in the Netherlands. By the 17th century chair types greatly proliferated and began to be increasingly upholstered, with leather and fine fabrics.

music icon Johann Sebastian Bach
Recitativo, Siehe, ich stehe vor der Tür (Behold, I stand at the door) (1.48 MB)
from cantata BWV 61 Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland–161-36/dp/B0000035PF/ref=sr_1_22?ie=UTF8&s=music&qid=1258281314&sr=1-22

Siehe, ich stehe vor der Tür und klopfe an.
So jemand meine Stimme hören wird und
die Tür auftun, zu dem werde ich eingehen
und das Abendmahl mit ihm halten
und er mit mir.
Behold, I stand at the door and knock.
If anyone hears My voice and
opens the door, I will come in to him
and will dine with him,
and he with Me.

(Revelation 3,20; version American Standard Bible 1993)