Music in the Time of Vermeer
by Adelheid Rech
by Adelheid Rech
A painting is a world without change and without sound. Vermeer's paintings, instead, are full of musical instruments and people making music. In almost one-third of his paintings, music is present in one way or another. The fact that Vermeer portrayed so many musical themes is not surprising in itself, "at least ten percent of all seventeenth-century paintings, music makes its appearance in one way or another. In genre pieces, in which category Vermeer's work is generally placed, the percentage is even higher. For example, about 20 per cent of Frans van Mieris' works, 25 per cent of Pieter de Hoogh's and almost half of Jacob Ochtervelt's deal in some way with music."1
The ability of painting to convey music and sound was not limited to the subjects they represented. Line, shape, and color, too, were central to a composition’s sense of harmony. When, in 1604, the Dutch theorist Karel van Mander published his Het Schilder-boek (The painting book), a manual for artists, he likened musical composition to the need for balance in a painted work: “Just as in music the multifarious sounds of the singers and the players harmonize, so here too [in painting] do the many different figures.” Harmony, his dictum suggests, is found in the mechanics—or color and shape—of the composition, not just in the image itself.
Dutch painting experts generally believe that underneath Vermeer's seemingly straightforward portrayals of young people engaged in a pleasurable pastime lies another level of meaning which can be understood only with consultation of period emblematic literature and other historical references. But to appreciate the full significance of music in Vermeer's paintings, it is not only important to understand related iconographical meaning however fascinating and informative it may be. We must also know something about the musical milieu in Vermeer's time, the musical instruments in his compositions, their history and playing technique and lastly, the particular sound made by each instrument and the music that was performed on them. The following multi-media project investigates many of these issues.
by Edwin Buijsen
The popularity of music as a pictorial motif cannot be separated from the musical life of the seventeenth century. What we learn from documents, contemporary writings and visual sources suggests that in seventeenth-century Holland music making was popular among both high and low.
In the muziekherbergen (music taverns), and so-called danscamers (dancing rooms), there would be musical performances and visitors could also play the instruments themselves. On special occasions such as weddings and festivals, professional players would perform, while on ordinary weekdays the itinerant musicians would play. Their. instruments were simple—the hurdy-gurdy, the bag- pipe and the rommelpot (rumbling pot), a percussion instrument.
In Vermeer's paintings we shall not find these popular instruments. On the whole his scenes depict the life of the upper class. In these upper-class circles music making generally took place within the privacy of the home. In view of the large number of song books published for use in the home, we may assume there was much singing. These books often had titillating titles such as Amorus Rhymes, The Frisian Pkasure Garden and suchlike. Famous Dutch poets like Bredero and Hooft did not scorn to write verses to be set to well-known tunes. Poels and music publishers aimed their works at a young public, full of high spirits and ready for amorous adventures. As well as love songs, there were of course songs of a morally invigorating nature, and instrumental pieces. Among women in particular music making was very popular and many ladies from well-to-do merchant families would have played one or more instruments. Since the young women did not have any form of employment, they would have had ample time for study and practicing. Enormous riches diffused in other ways through this relatively classless society and the Dutch were able to attract music, musicians and instruments from other countries. In many larger towns were collegia musica which had high standards, employing eminent foreign virtuosi, and their concerts developed into public concert-giving in the next century.
"Music in the Age of Vermeer," in Edwin Buijsen, in Dutch Society in the Age of Vermeer, Zwolle, 1996, p. 110p
Vermeer and Music The Art of Love and Leisure (pp.22–24)
by Marjorie E. Weisman
Whether sacred or secular, Dutch music of the seventeenth century was dominated by songs: simple, catchy and enormously popular. How were the songs disseminated? Oral tradition was strong, and it was also common practice for friends to exchange printed or manuscript music, even internationally, which the recipient would then copy and return. During the course of the seventeenth century, Amsterdam became a centre for music publishing, producing printed music to suit nearly every purse: from inexpensive song sheets hawked on street corners to deluxe music- and songbooks purveyed by publishers and specialist booksellers.
It is important to distinguish between two common types of musical publication: music books (printed scores, or tablature) and songbooks. Both were aimed primarily at amateurs with relatively little musical training, as full-time musicians were not only notoriously impecunious, but of necessity skilled mimics, adept at improvising and devising harmonies on the spot. Many music books contained ensemble music with melodic, bass, and harmony parts that couldr—depending on the instruments and players availabler—be performed using various combinations of instruments. Simplified adaptations of dance tunes were particularly popular, for accompanying dances among small circles of friends and family.
Unique among European countries, the Dutch eagerly embraced the printed songbook and developed it into a fine art. Described as 'a portable pharmacy for the soul', songbooks offered a selection of tunes designed to encourage love or soothe its pangs, dispel melancholy, or bring inner peace. The most deluxe publications featured varied typography and attractive layouts interspersed with engraved illustrations by well-known artists. Expensive volumes costing one or two guilders were often reissued in cheaper editions, costing just a few pennies, for a wider audience. The majority of songbooks contained text but no musical notation, just a brief indication of the tune to which they should be sung, typically traditional folk melodies or tunes imported from other countries. Verses could be sung to different tunes, and a single tune could host any number of lyrics. There was lively competition among publishers to include the newest verses, which ranged from poems by some of the most famous writers of the day, to amusingly vulgar rhymes and verses with strong local appeal that referenced area attractions or popular pastimes. These were the pop songs of the day: songs about love, drinking, sex, comic and satirical stories and, on occasion, even religious themes. Songs for a single voice were the most prevalent, sometimes accompanied by virginal, lute, cittern or other instruments.
Predictably, the most popular songs dealt with love in all its guises, and the most charming songbooks were those marketed to young adults enraptured by love's capricious triumphs and travails. Love songs provided entertainment and opportunity for romantic interaction, but also offered consolation in the event of disappointment. Illustrated songbooks were popular gifts from a young man to his sweetheart; most were quite small—about 12 by 18 centimetres, or even smaller—and could be easily carried in a pocket or hidden from disapproving elders. Publishers quickly realised the commercial potential in the songbook's appeal as an intimate, erotic and eminently portable love-token. Some included a sentimental dedication page, with a space left blank for the suitor to personalise it with his beloved's name.
Striking the Right Chord: Seeing Music in Dutch Genre Painting
by Jennifer Henel, National Gallery of Art
https://purl.org/nga/documents/literature/essays/striking-the-right-chord-seeing-music-in-dutch-genre-painting (accessed Jan
For many in the 17th century, the question of balance [in painting] was not only visual, it was also aural. Indeed, during that time there was an awareness of and interest in a concept later named synesthesia, from the Greek syn (union) and aísthesis (sensation), meaning the union of the senses. Since the 4th century BC, theorists and philosophers, including Aristotle, have explored the link betweencolor and sound, investigating the relationship between chromatic and musical tones.
These concepts were recognized and refined over the centuries by numerous scholars, including the 17th-century German Jesuit priest Athanasius Kircher, who, among other topics, wrote extensively on music theory. One of Kircher’s most important theories was his work on the correspondence of musical notes to specific colors, which he coded into a chart and published in 1646 (for an adaptation of this chart, see at right). According to Kircher, deep, dark sounds of minor notes are associated with cool, deep colors, while the warmer, brighter sounds of major notes are warmer, lighter colors. As a Jesuit priest, Kircher believed that the coexistence of sensory functions had profound implications in worship and that the immersion of sight and sound had the capacity, as one scholar wrote, to “move the passions, to produce strong emotional effects that, under properly controlled conditions, [could] ravish the soul and lead the faithful closer to the divine.”
Kircher’s articulation of the multisensory relationship between color and music resonates with Van Mander’s advice for artists and suggests that the experience of looking at painting may engage viewers on a variety of sensory levels. For synesthetes, the integration of certain colors and shapes on an artist’s panel or canvas may stimulate a musical experience, which would allow them to “hear” the painting.