Johannes Vermeer: Provenances

What is provenance?1

Provenance (from the French provenir, "to come from"), is the chronology of the ownership, custody or location of a historical object. The term was once primarily used in relation to works of art, but is now used in similar sense in other fields such as archaeology, paleontology, science and computing.

The primary purpose of tracing the provenance of a painting is to provide evidence its origin by establishing, as far as possible, its history via the sequences of its ownership, custody and places of storage. Provenance research attempts to produce a complete list of owners from the present time backwards to when the painting left the artist's studio. Provenance should also list when the painting has been part of an exhibition and a bibliography of when it has been discussed or illustrated in print. Auction records are an important resource to assist in researching the provenance of paintings. Modern paintings may present exhibition marks, dealer stamps, gallery labels and other indications of previous ownership on their back side. However these can be forged or accidently destroyed.

Establishing provenance may help authenticate artworks but it may also be important to record the physical details of the painting style, subject, signature, materials, dimensions and frame. Such information sometimes helps to shed light on the historical, social, and economic context in which a work of art was created and collected, as well as on the history of taste.

Establishing an unbroken line of provenance of older paintings is rarely achieved. Few records survive from the more distant past, and records can sometimes be questioned. The titles of paintings and the attribution to a particular artist frequently change over time. In these cases, the size of the work and its description can be used to identify earlier references to the painting. Records of sale frequently do not survive. Many private collectors buy and sell works anonymously through third parties, such as dealers or auction houses, which may or may not disclose the owner's identity. From a commercial point of view, a painting with good provenance is worth more than one without, because it is less likely to be a forgery or by the work of imitator. However, provenance is not sufficient in itself to establish the authenticity of a painting especially if it is considered of value.

Click here for a guide to provenance for IFAR International Foundation for Art Research. < http://www.ifar.org/provenance_guide.php>

The most detailed list of provenances of Vermeer’s work can be found in Vermeer (1976) 2 with provenances by Willem van de Wetering, pp. 155-172.

In the present provenance, Vermeer's paintings have been listed in chronological order according to the criterion of the Essential Vermeer Interactive Catalogue. Names of art dealers are given in brackets.

1

Diana and Her Companions, Johannes Vermeer

Diana and her Companions

c. 1653 - 1656
Oil on canvas, 98.5 x 105 cm.
Mauritshuis, The Hague
  • [Dirksen, The Hague, before 1866; sold to Goldsmid];
  • Neville Davison Goldsmid, The Hague (1866-75);
  • his widow, Eliza Garey, The Hague and Paris (1875-76);
  • Goldsmid-sale, Paris, 4 May 1876, no. 68 (purchased by
  • Victor de Stuers on behalf of The Netherlands, for fl. 10,000
  • as by Nicolaes Maes); 1876 to Koninklijk Kabinet van Schilderijen
  • Mauritshuis, The Hague (inv. 406).
2

Christ in the House of Martha and Mary, Johannes Vermeer

Christ in the House of Martha and Mary

c. 1654 - 1655
Oil on canvas, 160 x 142 cm.
National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh
  • collection Abbot Family, Bristol, c. 1880; furniture and antiques dealer, Bristol, 1884, sold to a private party and bought back;
  • Arthur Leslie Collie, London; [Forbes and Paterson, London, 1901, sold to Coats];
  • William Allan Coats, Skelmorlie Castle, Dalskairth, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland (1901-26);
  • his sons Thomas H. and J. A. Coats (1926-27);
  • 1927 donation by the Coats heirs to the National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh (inv. 1670).
3
The Procuress, Johannes Vermeer

The Procuress

1656
Oil on canvas, 143 x 130 cm.
Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden
  • before 1737 Waldstein collection castle Dux (Duchcov) near Teplitz (Teplice, Czech Republic);
  • acquired 1741 for the Elector of Saxony, August III;
  • 1945-1955 in the Soviet Union (requisition of war);
  • 1955 restituted to Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden (inv. 1335).
4
A Woman Asleep, Johannes Vermeer

A Maid Asleep

c. 1657
Oil on canvas, 87.6 x 76.5 cm.
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  • (?) Pieter Claesz. van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674);
  • (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681);
  • (?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695);
  • Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 8;
  • probably sale, Amsterdam (V. Posthumus), 19 December 1737, no. 47, sold to Carpi;
  • [probably J.B.P. Lebrun, Paris, in 1811];
  • Smeth van Alphen et al. sale, Paris (Lebrun), April 1811, no. 150, sold to Alexandre-Joseph Paillet, in 1811;
  • John Waterloo Wilson, Paris (after 1873-1881;
  • his sale, Paris, 13-16 March 1881, no. 116, to Sedelmeyer, Paris, 1881, sold 1881 to Rodolphe Kann, Paris (d. 1905); his estate, 1905-07;
  • sold to Duveen, London, 1907-08; sold 1908 to Benjamin Altman, New York (d. 1913);
  • since 1913 The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Bequest of Benjamin Altman (acc. no. 14.40.611).
5
Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window, Johannes Vermeer

Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window

c. 1657 - 1659
Oil on canvas, 83 x 64.5 cm.
Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden
  • (?) Pieter van der Lip sale, 14 June 1712, no. 22;
  • April 1742 acquired by the Saxon secretary of embassy, de Brais in Paris for the Elector of Saxony, August III, as by Rembrandt;
  • 1945-1955 in the Soviet Union (requisition of war);
  • 1955 restituted to Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden (inv. 1336).
6
The Little Street, Johannes Vermeer

The Little Street

c. 1657 - 1661
Oil on canvas, 54.3 x 44 cm.
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
  • (?) Pieter Claesz. van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674);
  • (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681);
  • (?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695);
  • Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 32 or no. 33; Gerrit Willem van Oosten de Bruyn, Haarlem (before 1797);
  • his widow, Haarlem (d. 1799), Van Oosten de Bruyn sale, Haarlem, 8 April 1800, no. 7, to Van Winter;
  • Pieter van Winter, Amsterdam (1800-1807);
  • Lucretia Johanna van Winter, Amsterdam (1807-45);
  • Jonkheer Hendrik Six van Hillegom, Amsterdam (1845-47);
  • Jonkheers Jan Pieter Six van Hillegom and Pieter Six van Vromade, Amsterdam (1847-99/1905);
  • Jonkheer Willem Six van Wimmenum, Amsterdam (1905-19);
  • Jonkheer Jan Six, Amsterdam and 's-Graveland (1919-21);
  • Six sale, Amsterdam 12 April 1921, to Sir Henry Deterding; his gift in 1921 to the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (inv. A 2860).
7
Officer and Laughing Girl, Johannes Vermeer

Officer and Laughing Girl

c. 1655-1660
Oil on canvas, 50.5 x 46 cm.
Frick Collection, New York
  • (?) Pieter Claesz. van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674); (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681);
  • (?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695);
  • Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 11;
  • Charles Scarisbrick sale, London (Christie's), 10 May 1861, no. 89, as by De Hooch, to Lee Mainwaring, said to have been purchased in an unidentified London sale by Double;
  • Léopold Double, Paris (Double sale, Paris [Pillet], 30 May 1881, no. 16 to Gauchey for Demidoff);
  • Prince Demidoff di San Donato, Villa di Pratolino, near Florence;
  • Samuel S. Joseph, London (1891); Mrs Samuel S. Joseph (1900);
  • [Knoedler, New York, 1911]; Henry Clay Frick, New York (d. 1911);
  • The Frick Collection, New York (acc. no. 11.1.127).
8
The Milkmaid, Johannes Vermeer

The Milkmaid

c. 1658-1661
Oil on canvas, 45.5 x 41 cm.
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
  • (?) Pieter Claesz van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674); (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681);
  • (?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695); Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 2;
  • Isaac Rooleeuw, Amsterdam (1696-1701);
  • Rooleeuw sale, Amsterdam, 20 April 1701, no. 7;
  • Jacob van Hoek, Amsterdam (1701-19);
  • Van Hoek sale, Amsterdam, 12 April 1719, no. 20;
  • Pieter Leendert de Neufville, Amsterdam (before 1759);
  • Leendert Pieter de Neufville, Amsterdam (1759-65);
  • De Neufville sale, Amsterdam, 19 June 1765, no. 65, to Yver;
  • Dulong sale, Amsterdam (H. de Winter and J. Yver), 18 April 1768, no. 10, to Van Diemen;
  • Jan Jacob de Bruyn, Amsterdam (1781);
  • De Bruyn sale, Amsterdam, 12 September 1798, no. 32, to J. Spaan;
  • Hendrik Muilman sale, Amsterdam, 12 April 1813, no. 96, to J. de Vries for Van Winter;
  • Lucretia Johanna van Winter (Six van Winter, after 1822), Amsterdam (1813-45);
  • Jonkheer Hendrik Six van Hillegom, Amsterdam (1845-47);
  • Jonkheers Jan Pieter Six van Hillegom and Pieter Six van Vromade, Amsterdam (1847-99/1905); Six van Vromade heirs;
  • purchased in 1908 by the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (inv. A2344).
9
The Glass of Wine, Johannes Vermeer

The Glass of Wine

c. 1658-1660
Oil on canvas, 65 x 77 cm.
Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz,
Gemäldegalerie
, Berlin
  • Jan van Loon sale, Delft, 18 July 1736, no. 16;
  • John Hope, Amsterdam (1774-d. 1784); Hope heirs (until 1794);
  • Henry Thomas Hope, Deepdene, Surrey (d. 1862);
  • his daughter, Henrietta Adela (d. 1884);
  • her son, Henry Francis Pelham-Clinton-Hope, London (until 1898);
  • [Colnaghi and Asher Wertheimer, London];
  • purchased in 1901 by the Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Berlin (inv. 912c).
10
The Girl with a Wineglass, Johannes Vermeer

The Girl with a Wine Glass

c. 1659-1660
Oil on canvas, 78 x 67 cm.
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Brunswick
  • (?) Pieter Claesz. van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674);
  • (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681);
  • (?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695);
  • Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 9;
  • Anton Ulrich, Duke of Braunschweig [Brunswick], (before 1710);
  • in 1714 to the Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig (inv. 316).
11
Girl Interrupted in her Music, Johannes Vermeer

Girl Interrupted in her Music

c. 1658-1661
Oil on canvas, 39.3 x 44.4 cm.
Frick Collection, New York
  • Pieter de Smeth van Alphen, Amsterdam (Van Alphen sale, 12 August 1810, no. 57, to J. de Vries);
  • Henry Croese et al. sale, Amsterdam, 18 September 1811, no. 45, to Roos;
  • Cornelis Sebille Roos (1811-20); Roos sale, Amsterdam, 28 August 1820, no. 64, to Brondgeest or to N.N.;
  • Samuel Woodburn sale, London (Christie's), 24 June 1853, no. 128, to Smith or directly to Gibson;
  • Francis Gibson, Saffron Walden (d. 1858); his daughter, Mrs Lewis Fry, Clifton, near Bristol;
  • [Lawrie & Co., London]; [Knoedler, New York, 1901];
  • Henry Clay Frick, New York (1901-d. 1919);
  • The Frick Collection, New York (acc. no. 11.1.125).
12
View of Delft, Johannes Vermeer

View of Delft

c. 1660-1661
Oil on canvas, 98.5 x 117.5 cm.
Mauritshuis, The Hague
  • (?) Pieter Claesz. van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674);
  • (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681); (?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695); Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 31;
  • Willem Philip Kops, Haarlem and Bloemendaal (before 1805);
  • Cornelia Kops-de Wolf, Bloemendaal (1805-20);
  • Anna Johanna Teding van Berkhout-Kops, Haarlem (1820-22);
  • S. J. Stinstra et al. sale, Amsterdam (J. de Vries), 22 May 1822; no. 112, to J. de Vries;
  • purchased by The Netherlands for the Koninklijk Kabinet van Schilderijen Mauritshuis, The Hague (inv.92).
13
The Music Lesson, Johannes Vermeer

The Music Lesson

c. 1662-1664
Oil on canvas, 73.3 x 64.5 cm.
The Royal Collection, The Windsor Castle
  • (?) Pieter Claesz van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674);
  • (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681);
  • (?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695);
  • Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 6;
  • Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini, Amsterdam/The Hague (1718), Venice (1741);
  • his widow, Angela Carriera, Venice (1741-42);
  • Joseph Smith, Venice and Mogliano (1742-62);
  • King Georg III, Windsor Castle, as by Frans van Mieris, (1762 acquired with the Smith Collection);
  • since 1762 Royal Collection, Windsor Castle and Buckingham Palace (inv. 109).
14
Woman in Blue Reading a Letter, Johannes Vermeer

Woman in Blue Reading a Letter

c. 1662 - 1665
Oil on canvas, 46.5 x 39 cm.
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
  • (?) Pieter van der Lip sale, 14 June 1712, no. 22;
  • Mozes de Chaves, Amsterdam (1759);
  • De Chaves sale, Amsterdam, 30 November 1772, no. 23;
  • P. Lyonet sale, Amsterdam, 11 April 1791, no. 181, to Fouquet;
  • sale, Amsterdam (Ph. van der Schley), 14 August 1793, no. 73;
  • Herman ten Kate, Amsterdam (?1793-1800);
  • Ten Kate sale, Amsterdam, 10 June 1801, no. 118, to Taijs?;
  • Lespinasse de Langeac sale, Paris (Paillet), 16 January 1809, no. 85;
  • Lapeyriè re sale, Paris, 19 April 1825, no. 127, to Berthaud;
  • [John Smith, London (after 1833-1839), sold to Van der Hoop];
  • Adriaan van der Hoop, Amsterdam (1839-54);
  • Academy of Fine Arts, Amsterdam (1854-85);
  • city of Amsterdam, since 1885 on loan to the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (inv. C251)
  • .
15
Woman Holding a Balance, Johannes Vermeer

Woman Holding a Balance

c. 1622-1665
Oil on canvas, 42.5 x 38 cm.
National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
  • (?) Pieter Claesz. van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674); (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681);
  • (?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695);
  • Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 1;
  • Isaac Rooleeuw, Amsterdam (1696-1701); Rooleeuw sale, Amsterdam 20 April 1701, no. 6;
  • Paulo van Uchelen, Amsterdam (1701-d.1702);
  • Paulo van Uchelen the Younger; Amsterdam (1703-54);
  • Anna Gertruijda van Uchelen, Amsterdam (1754-d.1766);
  • Van Uchelen sale, Amsterdam, 18 March 1767, no. 6, to Kok;
  • Nicolaas Nieuhoff sale, Amsterdam, 14 April 1777, no. 116, to Van den Boogaerd;
  • Trochel et al. sale, Amsterdam, 11 May 1801, no. 48, to Van der Schley;
  • King Maximilian I Jozef, Nymphenburg (before 1825);
  • King of Bavaria sale, Munich, 5 December 1826, no. 101 [as by Metsu], to Caraman;
  • Victor-Louis-Charles de Riquet, duc de Caraman, Paris (1826-30);
  • Caraman sale, Paris, 10 May 1830, no. 68;
  • Casimir Périer, Paris (1830-32); Périer heirs, Paris (1832-48);
  • Périer sale, London (Christie's), 5 May 1848, no. 7, [bought in];
  • Auguste Casimir Victor Laurent Périer, Paris (1848-76);
  • Jean Paul Pierre Casimir Périer, Paris (1876-1907);
  • comtesse de Ségur-Périer, Paris (1907-11);
  • [Colnaghi, London, and Knoedler, New York, 1911];
  • Peter A.B. Widener, Lynnewood Hall, Elkins Park, Philadelphia (1911-15);
  • Joseph E. Widener, Lynnewood Hall, Elkins Park, Philadelphia (1915-d.1942);
  • since 1942 National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, Widener bequest (acc. no. 1942.9.97).
16
Young Woman with a Water Pitcher

Young Woman with a Water Pitcher

c. 1662 - 1665
Oil on canvas, 45.7 x 40.6 cm.
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  • Robert Vernon, Cambridgeshire and London (1801?-d.1849);
  • Vernon sale, London [Christie's] 21 April 1877, no. 97, as by Metsu (to M. Colnaghi);
  • [Colnaghi, London, 1877-78;
  • sold (as by Metsu) to Wingfield];
  • Mervyn Wingfield, 71th Viscount Powerscourt, Ireland (1878-?87, as by Vermeer);
  • [Agnew, London];
  • [Bourgeois Frères, Paris];
  • [Charles Pillet, Paris, 1887;
  • to Marquand];
  • Henry G. Marquand, New York (1887-89);
  • The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Marquand Collection, Gift of Henry G. Marquand, 1889 (acc. no. 89.15.21).
17
Woman with a Lute, Johannes Vermeer

Woman with a Lute

c. 1662-1664
Oil on canvas, 51.4 x 45.7 cm.
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  • Philippus van der Schley and Daniel du Pré sale, Amsterdam (Roos, De Vries and Brondgeest), 22 December 1817, no. 62, to Coclers;
  • [Paris, before 1900;
  • sold to Huntington];
  • Collis P. Huntington, New York (until d.1900);
  • his widow, Arabella D. Huntington;
  • (from 1913) Mrs: Henry E. Huntington (1900-d.1924);
  • their son, Archer Milton Huntington (1924-terminated in 1925);
  • The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Bequest of Collis P. Huntington, 1900 (acc. no. 25.110.24).
18
Woman with a Pearl Necklace, Johannes Vermeer

Woman with a Pearl Necklace

c. 1662 - 1665
Oil on canvas, 55 x 45 cm.
Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin
  • (?) Pieter Claesz van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674);
  • (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681);
  • (?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695);
  • Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 36;
  • Johannes Caudri, Amsterdam (before 1809);
  • Caudri sale, Amsterdam, 6 September 1809, no. 42, (to Ths. Spaan);
  • D. Teengs sale, Amsterdam, 24 April 1811, no. 73 (to Gruyter);
  • Sale, Amsterdam, 26 March 1856, no. 93 (to Philip);
  • Henry Grevedon, Paris (before 1860);
  • Thoré-Bürger (Etienne Joseph Théophile Thoré), Paris (c. 1860-68);
  • Thoré-Bürger et al. sale, Brussels, 22 April 1868, no. 49 (to Sedelmeyer for Suermondt);
  • Barthold Suermondt, Aachen (1868-74);
  • acquired in 1874 as part of the Suermondt collection by the Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (inv. 912B).
19
A Lady Writing, Johannes Vermeer

A Lady Writing

c. 1665-1666
Oil on canvas, 45 x 39.9 cm.
National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
  • (?) Pieter Claesz. van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674);
  • (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681);
  • (?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695);
  • Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 35;
  • J. van Buren, The Hague;
  • Van Buren sale, The Hague, 7 November 1808, no. 22;
  • Cornelis Jan Luchtmans, Rotterdam (1808-16);
  • Luchtmans sale, Rotterdam, 20 April 1816, no. 90;
  • F. Kamermans, Rotterdam, by 1819;
  • Kamermans sale, Rotterdam, 3 October 1825, no. 70 (to Lelie);
  • Hendrik Reydon et al. sale, Amsterdam, 5 April 1827, no. 26;
  • François-Xavier, comte de Robiano, Brussels (1827-37);
  • De Robiano sale, Brussels, 1 May 1837, no. 436 (to J. Héris for the following);
  • Ludovic, comte de Robiano, Brussels (1837-d.1887);
  • Heirs De Robiano, Brussels (1888-1906);
  • [J. & A. Le Roy, Brussels, 1907];
  • J. Pierpont Morgan, New York (1907-d.1913, from G.S. Hellman);
  • his son, J. P. Morgan, Jr., New York (1913-40);
  • Sir Harry Oakes, Nassau, Bahamas (1940-43);
  • Lady Eunice Oakes, Nassau, Bahamas (1943-46);
  • [M. Knoedler & Co., New York, 1946];
  • Horace Havemeyer, New York (1946-56);
  • his sons, Harry Waldron Havemeyer and Horace Havemeyer, Jr., New York (1956-62);
  • National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, Gift of Harry Waldron Havemeyer and Horace Havemeyer, Jr., in memory of their father, Horace Havemeyer (acc. no. 1962.10.1).
20
Girl with a Red Hat, Johannes Vermeer

Girl with a Red Hat

c. 1665-1667
Oil on panel, 23.2 x 18.1 cm.
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
  • (?) Pieter Claesz van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674);
  • (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681);
  • (?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695);
  • Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 38, 39 or 40 [tronies];
  • La Fontaine sale, Paris, 10 December 1822, no. 28;
  • Louis Marie, Baron Atthalin, Colmar (1823-56);
  • Gaston, Baron Laurent-Atthalin, Limay, Seine-et-Oise (1856-1911);
  • his widow, Baroness Laurent-Atthalin, Pairs (1911-25);
  • [Knoedler Galleries, London and New York, 1925];
  • Andrew W. Mellon, Pittsburgh and Washington, DC (1925-32);
  • The A. W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust, Pittsburgh (1932-37);
  • National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, Andrew W. Mellon Collection (acc. no. 1937.1.53).
21
Girl with a Flute, Johannes Vermeer

Girl with a Flute

c. 1665-1670
Oil on panel, 20 x 17.8 cm.
National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
  • (?) Pieter Claesz. van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674);
  • (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681);
  • (?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695);
  • Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 38, 39 or 40 [tronies];
  • ?Van Son family, 's-Hertogenbosch;
  • Jan Mahie van Boxtel en Liempde and his wife, Geertruida van Boxtel en Liempde(née Van Son, d. 1876), 's-Hertogenbosch;
  • purchased by their daughter, Jacqueline Gertrude Marie de Grez-van Boxtel en Liempde, wife of Jonkheer Jan de Grez (d.1910), Brussels (1876-1911);
  • [Jonas, Paris, 1911];
  • August Janssen, Amsterdam [by 1919-21];
  • [Frederick Muller, Amsterdam, and Knoedler, New York, 1921-23, sold to Widener];
  • Joseph E. Widener, Lynnewood Hall, Elkins Park, Philadelphia (1923-d.1942);
  • National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, Widener Collection (acc. no. 1942.9.98).
22
Girl with a Pearl Earring, Johannes Vermeer

Girl with a Pearl Earring

c. 1665- 1667
Oil on canvas, 46.5 x 40 cm.
Mauritshuis, The Hague
  • (?) Pieter Claesz. van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674);
  • (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681);
  • (?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695);
  • Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 38, 39 or 40 [tronies];
  • Braams sale, The Hague, 1881 (day and month unknown), to Des Tombe;
  • Arnoldus Andries des Tombe, The Hague (1881-d.1902);
  • 1903 bequest of Arnoldus des Tombe to the Koninklijk Kabinet van Schilderijen Mauritshuis, The Hague (inv. 670).
23
The Concert, Johannes Vermeer

The Concert

c. 1663-1666
Oil on canvas, 72.5 x 64.7 cm.
Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston
  • (?) Pieter Claesz. van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674);
  • (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681);
  • (?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695);
  • Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, possibly no. 9;
  • Johannes Lodewijk Strantwijk sale, Amsterdam, 10 May 1780, no. 150 (to A. Delfos for the 'Heer van Vlaardingen', the following);
  • Diederik van Leyden sale, Paris [Paillet], 5 November 1804, no. 62 (to Paillet);
  • Sale, London (Foster), 26 February 1835, no. 127;
  • Admiral Lysaght et al. sale, London [Christie's], 2 April 1860, no. 49 (to Toothe);
  • D[emidoff] sale, Paris, 1 April 1869, no. 14, evidently to Thoré-Bürger;
  • Thoré-Bürger (Etienne Joseph Théophile Thoré), Paris (?1869-d.1869);
  • Thoré-Bürger sale, Paris, 5 December 1892, no. 31 (to Robert for Gardner);
  • Isabella Stewart Gardner, Boston (1869-d.1924);
  • Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston (inv. P21W27).
24
The Art of Painting, Johannes Vermeer

The Art of Painting

c. 1662 - 1668
Oil on canvas, 120 X 100 cm.
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
  • The artist's widow, Catharina Bolnes (1675-76);
  • transferred to her mother, Maria Thins (24 February 1676);
  • evidently sold at auction in Delft, 15 March 1677;
  • possibly Baron Gerard van Swieten, prefect of the Imperial Court Library, Vienna (d.1772);
  • his son, Gottfried van Swieten (d.1803);
  • his estate, as by Pieter de Hooch (1803-13, sold to Czernin);
  • Count Johann Rudolf Czernin (1813-34, as by De Hooch);
  • by descent to Count Eugen Czernin (d.1955) and Jaromir Czernin (d.1966);
  • Adolf Hitler (1940-45);
  • Munich Central Collecting Point (1945);
  • transferred on 17 November 1945 to the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
25
Study of a Young Woman, Johannes Vermeer

Study of a Young Woman

c. 1665–1667
Oil on canvas, 44.5 x 40 cm.
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  • (?) Pieter Claesz. van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674);
  • (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681);
  • (?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695);
  • Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 38, 39 or 40 [tronies];
  • Jan Luchtmans, Rotterdam (in 1816);
  • Luchtmans sale, Rotterdam, 20 April 1816, no. 92;
  • Auguste Marie Raymond, prince d'Arenberg, Brussels (by 1829-d.1833);
  • Arenberg family, Brussels and Schloss Meppen, Germany (1833-1945);
  • Engelbert-Marie, 9th duc d'Arenberg, Brussels, Schloss Meppen and Schloss Nordkirchen, Germany (1945-d.1949);
  • his son, Engelbert-Charles, 10th duc d'Arenberg (1949-55; sold through Germain Seligman to Wrightsman);
  • Mr and Mrs Charles Wrightsman, New York (1955-79);
  • The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Gift of Mr and Mrs Charles Wrightsman, in memory of Theodore Rousseau Jr., 1979 (acc. no. 1979.396.1).
26
Mistress and Maid, Johannes Vermeer

Mistress and Maid

c. 1666-1667
Oil on canvas, 90.2 x 78.7 cm.
Frick Collection, New York
  • (?) Pieter Claesz. van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674);
  • (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681);
  • (?) their daughter, Magdalena (d. 1695);
  • Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 7;
  • sale, Amsterdam, 15 October 1738, no. 12 (to Oortman);
  • probably Van Helsleuter et al. sale, Paris (Paillet), 25 January 1802, no. 106 (bought in);
  • [Ch. Lebrun, Paris];
  • sale, Paris (Paillet), 16 January 1809, no. 34 (to Lebrun);
  • Lebrun sale, Paris, 20 March 1810, no. 143 (to Chevallier);
  • sale, Paris (Paillet), 24 March 1818, no. 48;
  • Dufour, Marseilles (from 1819 or earlier);
  • Duchesse de Berry sale, Paris, 4-6 April 1837, no 76 (to Paillet);
  • E. Secrétan sale, Paris, 1 July 1889, no. 139 (to Sedelmeyer);
  • A. Paulovstof, St. Petersburg;
  • [Lawrie & Co., London]; [Sulley & Co., London, in 1905];
  • James Simon, Berlin (?1906-at least 1914);
  • [Knoedler, New York];
  • Henry Clay Frick, New York (in 1919; d. 1919);
  • The Frick Collection, New York (acc. no. 11.1.126).
27
The Astronomer, Johannes Vermeer

The Astronomer

1668
Oil on canvas, 50 x 45 cm.
Musée du Louvre, Paris
  • (?) Adriaen Paets I, Rotterdam (?1669-d.1686);
  • (?) his son, Adriaen Paets II, Rotterdam (1686-d.1712);
  • sale (Paets et al.?), Rotterdam, 27 April 1713, no. 10 or 11, sold together;
  • Hendrick Sorgh, Amsterdam (?1713-d.1720);
  • Sorgh sale, Amsterdam, 28 March 1720, no. 3 or 4, sold together;
  • Govert Looten, Amsterdam (before d.1727);
  • Looten sale, Amsterdam, 31 March 1729, no. 6, sold together with pendant of the same no. Jacob Crammer Simonsz, Amsterdam (by d.1778);
  • Crammer Simonsz sale, Amsterdam, 25 November 1778, no. 18, sold together with pendant (to De Vries);
  • Jean Etienne Fizeaux, Amsterdam (1778-d.1780);
  • his widow, Amsterdam (1780-?1785);
  • [Pieter Fouquet, Amsterdam, and Alexandre Joseph Paillet, Paris, 1784-85];
  • Jan Danser Nijman, Amsterdam (?before 1794-d.1796);
  • Danser Nijman sale, Amsterdam, 16 August 1797, no. 167, sold separately (to Gildemeester);
  • Jan Gildemeester, Amsterdam (1797-d.1799);
  • Gildemeester sale, Amsterdam, 11 June 1800, no. 139 (to La Bouchère);
  • Michael Bryan sale, ?London, 9 May 1804, no. 145a;
  • John Gibbons, near Birmingham (by 1820-28 or later);
  • sale, place unknown, 7 October 1820, no. 31 (bought in);
  • his brother?, William Gibbons, sale, London, 18 June 1857, no. 52, as A Philosopher (to [Henry?] Tate);
  • Léopold Double, sale, Paris, 30 May 1881, no. 17 (to Gauchez);
  • [Léon Gauchez, Paris; sold to Rothschild between 1881 and 1888];
  • Alphonse de Rothschild, Paris (until d.1905);
  • his son, Edouard de Rothschild, Paris (1905-d.1949);
  • (between November 1940 and 1945 confiscated for Hitler's intended museum in Linz);
  • his son, Guy de Rothschild (1949-82);
  • acquired in 1983 by the Musée du Louvre, Paris (inv. RF 1983-28).
28
The Geographer, Johannes Vermeer

The Geographer

c. 1668-1669
Oil on canvas, 53 x 46.6 cm.
Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
  • (?) Adriaen Paets I, Rotterdam (?1669-d.1686);
  • (?) his son, Adriaen Paets II, Rotterdam (1686-d.1712);
  • sale (Paets et al.?), Rotterdam, 27 April 1713, no. 10 or 11, sold together;
  • Hendrick Sorgh, Amsterdam (?1713-d.1720);
  • Sorgh sale, Amsterdam, 28 March 1720, no. 3 or 4, sold together;
  • Govert Looten, Amsterdam (before d.1727);
  • Looten sale, Amsterdam, 31 March 1729, no. 6, sold together with pendant of the same no. Jacob Crammer Simonsz, Amsterdam (by d.1778);
  • Crammer Simonsz sale, Amsterdam, 25 November 1778, no. 18, sold together with pendant (to De Vries);
  • Jean Etienne Fizeaux, Amsterdam (1778-d.1780);
  • his widow, Amsterdam (1780-?1785);
  • [Pieter Fouquet, Amsterdam, and Alexandre Joseph Paillet, Paris, 1784-85];
  • Jan Danser Nijman, Amsterdam (?before 1794-d.1796);
  • Danser Nijman sale, Amsterdam, 16 August 1797, no. 168, sold separately (to Josi);
  • [Christian Josi, Amsterdam and London];
  • Arnoud de Lange, Amsterdam (?1797-d.1803);
  • De Lange sale, Amsterdam, 12 December 1803, no. 55 (to Coclers);
  • Johann Goll van Franckenstein, Jr., Velzen and Amsterdam (before 1821);
  • Pieter Hendrick Goll van Franckenstein, Amsterdam (before 1832);
  • Goll van Franckenstein sale, Amsterdam, 1 July 1833, no. 47 (to Nieuwenhuys);
  • [Christian Johannes Nieuwenhuys, Brussels and London; sold to Dumont];
  • Alexandre Dumont, Cambrai (before 1860-66);
  • Isaac Péreire, Paris, 1866 (sold via Thoré-Bürger from Dumont);
  • Péreire brothers sale, Paris, 6 March 1872, no. 132;
  • ?Max Kann, Paris (?1872);
  • [Sedelmeyer, Paris, c. 1875; sold to Demidoff];
  • Prince Demidoff di San Donato, near Florence (before 1877-80);
  • Demidoff sale, San Donato, 15 March 1880, no. 1124 (to Bösch?);
  • Adolf Josef Bösch, Döbling, Vienna (?1880-d.1884);
  • Bösch sale, Vienna, 28 April 1885, no. 32 (to Ludwig Kohlbacher of the Frankfurter Kunstverein on behalf of the Städelsches Kunstinstitut);
  • 26 May 1885 to the Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main (inv. 1149).
29
The Lacemaker, Johannes vermeer

The Lacemaker

c. 1669-1671
Oil on canvas on panel, 24.5 x 21 cm.
Musée du Louvre, Paris
  • (?) Pieter Claesz. van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674);
  • (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681)(?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695); Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 12;
  • Jacob Crammer Simonsz, Amsterdam (before d.1778);
  • Crammer Simonsz sale, Amsterdam, 25 November 1778, no. 17 (to Nijman);
  • Jan Danser Nijman, Amsterdam (1778-before 1792);
  • Jan Wubbels sale, Amsterdam, 16 July 1792, no. 213 (to J. Spaan);
  • Hendrik Muilman sale, Amsterdam, 12 April 1813, no. 97 (to Coclers);
  • A. L[apeyrière] sale, Paris, 14 April 1817, no. 50 (to Coclers);
  • Anne Willem Carel, Baron van Nagell van Ampsen sale, The Hague, 5 September 1851, no. 40 (to Lamme);
  • Dirk Vis Blokhuyzen, Rotterdam (?1851-d.1869); Vis Blokhuyzen sale, Paris, 1 April 1870, no. 40 (to Gauchez);
  • [Léon Gauchez, Paris, in 1870];
  • [Féral, Paris, sold in 1870 to the Louvre];
  • Musée du Louvre, Paris (inv. M.I. 1448).
30
Love Letter, Johannes Vermeer

The Love Letter

c. 1667-1670
Oil on canvas, 44 x 38.5.cm.
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
  • Pieter van Lennep, Amsterdam (c.1810?-d.1850);
  • his daughter, Margaretha Catharina van Lennep, Amsterdam (1850-d.1891;
  • married Jan Messchert van Vollenhoven [d.1881] in 1850);
  • J.F. van Lennep, Amsterdam (1892);
  • Messchert van Vollenhoven/Van Engelenberg sale, Amsterdam, 29 March 1892, no. 14 (to J. Ankersmit of the Vereniging Rembrandt);
  • Vereniging Rembrandt, Amsterdam (1892-93);
  • purchased in January 1893 by the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (inv. A 1595).
31
The Guitar Player, Johannes Vermeer

The Guitar Player

c. 1670-1672
Oil on canvas, 53 x 46.3 cm.
Iveagh Bequest, London
  • (?) Pieter Claesz. van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674);
  • (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681);
  • (?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695); Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 4;
  • ?Jan Danser Nijman, Amsterdam (before 1794);
  • Henry Temple, 2nd Viscount Palmerston, London (1794-d.1802);
  • his son, Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, London and Broadlands, Hampshire (1802-d.1865);
  • his stepson, William Francis Cowper-Temple, 1st Baron Mount Temple, Broadlands, Hampshire (1865-d.1888);
  • his nephew, (Anthony) Evelyn Melbourne Ashley (in 1888, sold to Agnew);
  • [Agnew, London, 1888-89, sold to Guinness];
  • Edward Cecil Guinness, (from 1919) Earl of Iveagh, London (1889-d.1927);
  • The Iveagh Bequest, Kenwood House, London (inv. 88028841).
32
Lady Writing a Letter with her Maid. Johannes Vermeer

Lady Writing a Letter with her Maid

c. 1670-1671
Oil on canvas, 71.1 x 58.4 cm.
National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin
  • The artist's widow, Catharina Bolnes (1675-76);
  • on 27 January 1676, together with another painting as security for a dept to Van Buyten;
  • Hendrick van Buyten, Delft (1676-d.1701);
  • Josua van Belle, Rotterdam (before d.1710);
  • his widow, Ida Catharina van der Meyden, Rotterdam (1710-29);
  • Van Belle sale, Rotterdam, 6 September 1730, no. 92;
  • Franco van Bleyswijck, Delft (d.1734);
  • inherited by Catharina van der Burch (wife of Hendrick van Slingelandt), The Hague (1734-61);
  • Heirs Van Slingelandt, The Hague (1761);
  • Maria Catharina van Slingelandt, The Hague (1761-71), or Agatha van Slingelandt, The Hague (1761-75);
  • ?Barthout van Slingelandt, Dordrecht (1771-98) or Willem Bentinck, The Hague (1775-98);
  • Viktor von Miller zu Aichholz, Vienna (before 1881, sold to Sedelmeyer);
  • [Charles Sedelmeyer, Paris, sold in 1881 to Secrétan];
  • E. Secrétan, Paris (1881-89);
  • Secrétan sale, Paris, 1 July 1889, no. 140 (to Boussod, Valadon & Co.);
  • Collection Marinoni, Paris;
  • [Kleinberger, Paris];
  • Alfred Beit, London (c. 1895-1906);
  • Sir Otto Beit, Baronet, London (1906-30);
  • Sir Alfred Beit, 2nd Baronet, London and (from 1952) Russborough, near Dublin (1930-87, stolen in 1974 and 1986);
  • he National Gallery of Ireland (bequeathed by Beit in 1987;
  • the painting was recovered in 1993).
33
Allegory of Faith, Johannes Vermeer

Allegory of Faith

c. 1670- 1674
Oil on canvas, 114.3 x 88.9 cm.
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  • Herman Stoffels van Swoll, Amsterdam (before 1698);
  • Van Swoll sale, Amsterdam, 22 April 1699, no. 25;
  • sale, Amsterdam 13 July 1718, no. 8;
  • sale, Amsterdam, 19 April 1735, no. 11;
  • [David Ietswaart, until 1749];
  • Ietswaart sale, Amsterdam, 22 April 1749, no. 152 (to Ravensberg);
  • private collection, Austria (1824);
  • Dimitri Shchukin, Moscow (1899, probably as by Eglon van der Neer);
  • [Wächtler, Berlin, 1899, as by Eglon van der Neer, sold to Bredius];
  • Abraham Bredius, The Hague (1899-1928, as by Vermeer, on loan to the Mauritshuis, The Hague, 1899-1923, The Hague, on loan to the Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam, 1923-1928, sold to Kleinberger);
  • [Kleinberger, Paris, 1928, sold to Friedsam];
  • Michael Friedsam, New York (1928-d.1931);
  • The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, The Friedsam Collection, Bequest of Michael Friedsam, 1931 (acc. no. 32.100.18).
34
Lady Standing at a Virginal, Johannes Vermeer

A Lady Standing at a Virginal

c. 1670-1673
Oil on canvas, 51.7 x 45.2 cm.
National Gallery, London
  • (?) Diego Duarte, Antwerp (1682, sold before 1691), or (?) Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 37, or (?) Nicolaes van Assendelft, Delft (before 1692) and widow Van Assendelft, Delft (1711);
  • (?) sale, Amsterdam, 1714, possibly no. 12;
  • Jan Danser Nijman sale, Amsterdam, 16 August 1797, no. 169 (to Bergh);
  • (?) Edward Solly, Berlin and London, before 1844;
  • Edward William Lake sale, London, 11 July 1845, no. 5 (to Farrer);
  • J.T. Thom sale, London, 2 May 1855, no. 22 (to Grey);
  • Thoré-Bürger (Etienne Joseph Théophile Thoré), Paris (before 1866-d.1869);
  • Paul Lacroix, Paris (1869-1884, inherited from Thoré-Bürger);
  • widow Lacroix, Paris (1884-1892);
  • Thoré-Bürger sale, Paris, 5 December 1892, no. 20 (to Bourgeois Frères, Paris, and/or Lawrie & Co., London);
  • purchased in 1892 by The National Gallery, London (inv. 1383).
35
A Lady Seatd at the Virginals, Joihanns Vermeer

A Lady Seated at a Virginal

c. 1670-1675
Oil on canvas, 51.5 x 45.5 cm.
National Gallery, London
  • (?) Diego Duarte, Antwerp (1682, sold before 1691), or (?) Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, no. 37, or (?) Nicolaes van Assendelft, Delft (before 1692) and widow Van Assendelft, Delft (1711);
  • (?) sale, Amsterdam, 1714, possibly no. 12;
  • Lothar Franz von Schönborn, Schloß Weissenstein, Pommersfelden (c. 1714-1729);
  • Count von Schönborn sale, Paris, 17ff. May 1867, no. 78 (to Thoré-Bürger);
  • Thoré-Bürger (Etienne Joseph Théophile Thoré), Paris (1867-d.1869);
  • Paul Lacroix, Paris (1869-1884, inherited from Thoré-Bürger);
  • widow Lacroix, Paris (1884-1892);
  • Thoré-Bürger sale, Paris, 5 December 1892, no. 32 (to Sedelmeyer);
  • [Sedelmeyer, Paris, 1892-93];
  • [Lawrie & Co., London, 1893, from Sedelmeyer];
  • [T. Humphry Ward, London, 1894];
  • George Salting, London (before 1898-d.1910);
  • The National Gallery, London, Salting Bequest, 1910 (inv. 2568).
36 ?
A Young Woman Seated at the Virginals (attributed to Johannes Vermeer)

A Young Woman Seated at the Virginals

(attributed to Johannes Vermeer)
c. 1670
Oil on canvas, 25.2 x 20 cm.
Private collection, New York
  • (?) Pieter Claesz. van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1674);
  • (?) his widow, Maria de Knuijt, Delft (d. 1681);
  • (?) their daughter, Magdalena van Ruijven, Delft (d. 1682);
  • (?) her widower, Jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (d. 1695);
  • Dissius sale, Amsterdam, 16 May 1696, possibly no. 37;
  • (?) Wessel Ryers sale, Amsterdam, 21 September 1814, no. 93 (to Gruyter);
  • Alfred Beit, London (1890s?, by 1904);
  • his brother, Otto Beit (in 1906);
  • his son, Alfred Beit, Blessington, Ireland (until 1960);
  • [Marlborough Fine Art, London, in 1960];
  • Baron Frédéric Rolin, Brussels (1960-d.2002);
  • his heirs (sold, London [Sotheby's], 7 July 2004, no. 8);
  • private collection.

Appendix

a.
Saint Praxedis, Johannes Vermeer

Saint Praxedis

(attributed to Johannes Vermeer)
1655
Oil on canvas, 101.6 x 82.6 cm. (40 x 32 1/2 in.)
Barbara Piasecka The Johnson Collection Foundation, (whereabouts unknown)

  • Erna and Jacob Reder, New York, 1932 [Spencer Samuels & Company, New York, 1969-1987];
  • Barbara Piasecka Johnson Collection Foundation; 1987.
  1. Infromation drawn from "Provenance," Wikipedia website <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provenance > and "Provenance Research Project," Metroploitan Museum of Art website, <http://www.metmuseum.org/research/provenance-research-project>
  2. Albert Blankert, with contributions by Rob Ruurs and Willen L. van de WATERING, Vermeer, Oxford, 1978.